Cuba Population: 11,179,995


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The native Amerindian population of Cuba began to decline after the European discovery of the island by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1492 and following its development as a Spanish colony during the next several centuries. Large numbers of African slaves were imported to work the coffee and sugar plantations, and Havana became the launching point for the annual treasure fleets bound for Spain from Mexico and Peru. Spanish rule eventually provoked an independence movement and occasional rebellions that were harshly suppressed. US intervention during the Spanish-American War in 1898 assisted the Cubans in overthrowing Spanish rule. The Treaty of Paris established Cuban independence from Spain in 1898 and, following three-and-a-half years of subsequent US military rule, Cuba became an independent republic in 1902 after which the island experienced a string of governments mostly dominated by the military and corrupt politicians. Fidel CASTRO led a rebel army to victory in 1959; his authoritarian rule held the subsequent regime together for nearly five decades. He stepped down as president in February 2008 in favor of his younger brother Raul CASTRO. Cuba's communist revolution, with Soviet support, was exported throughout Latin America and Africa during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. The country faced a severe economic downturn in 1990 following the withdrawal of former Soviet subsidies worth $4-6 billion annually. Cuba at times portrays the US embargo, in place since 1961, as the source of its difficulties. Illicit migration to the US - using homemade rafts, alien smugglers, air flights, or via the US's southern border - is a continuing problem. In FY 2014, the US Coast Guard interdicted 2,111 Cuban nationals at sea, the highest number since FY 2008. Also in FY 2014, 24,289 Cuban migrants presented themselves at various land border ports of entry throughout the US. As a result of efforts begun in December 2014 by President OBAMA to re-establishment diplomatic relations with the Cuban government, which were severed in January 1961, the US and Cuba reopened embassies in their respective countries on 20 July 2015. Over the past decade, there has been growing communication with the Cuban Government to address national interests.

Largest country in Caribbean and westernmost island of the Greater Antilles
Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, 150 km south of Key West, Florida
Geographic coordinates: 21 30 N, 80 00 W
Area: total: 110,860 sq km
land: 109,820 sq km
water: 1,040 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Land Boundaries: total: 28.5 km
border countries: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay 28.5 km note: Guantanamo Naval Base is leased by the US and remains part of Cuba
Coastline: 3,735 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to April); rainy season (May to October)
Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains, with rugged hills and mountains in the southeast
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: cobalt, nickel, iron ore, chromium, copper, salt, timber, silica, petroleum, arable land
Land use: agricultural land: 60.3% arable land 33.8%; permanent crops 3.6%; permanent pasture 22.9% forest: 27.3%
other: 12.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 8,700 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: the east coast is subject to hurricanes from August to November (in general, the country averages about one hurricane every other year); droughts are common
Current Environment Issues: air and water pollution; biodiversity loss; deforestation
International Environment Agreements: party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
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Nationality: noun: Cuban(s)
adjective: Cuban
Ethnic groups: white 64.1%, mestizo 26.6%, black 9.3% (2012 est.)
Languages: Spanish (official)
Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jewish, Santeria

note: prior to CASTRO assuming power
Population: 11,179,995 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 16.7% (male 960,832/female 905,904)
15-24 years: 12.44% (male 721,390/female 669,960)
25-54 years: 44.95% (male 2,526,467/female 2,498,882)
55-64 years: 11.27% (male 610,190/female 649,656)
65 years and over: 14.64% (male 751,621/female 885,093) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 43.4%
youth dependency ratio: 23.4%
elderly dependency ratio: 20%
potential support ratio: 5% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 41.1 years
male: 40 years
female: 42.2 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.3% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 10.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 8.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -5.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 77.1% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.07% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: HAVANA (capital) 2.137 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 39 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 4.5 deaths/1,000 live births male: 5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.7 years male: 76.4 years
female: 81.1 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.71 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 74.3% (2010/11)
Health expenditures: 11.1% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 6.72 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Hospital bed density: 5.3 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 96.4% of population
rural: 89.8% of population
total: 94.9% of population

urban: 3.6% of population
rural: 10.2% of population
total: 5.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 94.4% of population
rural: 89.1% of population
total: 93.2% of population

urban: 5.6% of population
rural: 10.9% of population
total: 6.8% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.31% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 21,900 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 200 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 27.2% (2014)
Education expenditures: 12.8% of GDP (2010)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.9%
female: 99.8% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 14 years male: 14 years
female: 14 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 6.1% male: 6.4%
female: 5.6% (2010 est.)
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Cuba
conventional short form: Cuba
local long form: Republica de Cuba
local short form: Cuba
etymology: name derives from the Taino Indian designation for the island "coabana" meaning "great place"
Government type: communist state
Capital: name: Havana
geographic coordinates: 23 07 N, 82 21 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November; note - Cuba has been known to alter the schedule of DST on short notice in an attempt to conserve electricity for lighting
Administrative divisions: 15 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 special municipality* (municipio especial); Artemisa, Camaguey, Ciego de Avila, Cienfuegos, Granma, Guantanamo, Holguin, Isla de la Juventud*, La Habana, Las Tunas, Matanzas, Mayabeque, Pinar del Rio, Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa Clara
Independence: 20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898; administered by the US from 1898 to 1902); not acknowledged by the Cuban Government as a day of independence
National holiday: Triumph of the Revolution (Liberation Day), 1 January (1959)
Constitution: several previous; latest adopted by referendum 15 February 1976, effective 24 February 1976; amended 1978, 1992, 2002 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system based on Spanish civil code
Suffrage: 16 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (president since 24 February 2008); First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Miguel DIAZ-CANEL Bermudez (since 24 February 2013); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (president since 24 February 2008); First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Miguel DIAZ-CANEL Bermudez (since 24 February 2013)

cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the president of the Council of State, appointed by the National Assembly or the 28-member Council of State, and elected by the assembly to act on its behalf when it is not in session elections/appointments: president and vice presidents indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (no term limit); election last held on 24 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018)

election results: Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (PCC) reelected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 100%; Miguel DIAZ-CANEL (PCC) Bermudez elected vice president; percent of National Assembly vote- 100%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National Assembly of People's Power or Asemblea Nacional del Poder Popular (614 seats; members directly elected by absolute majority in a modified two-round vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - the National Candidature Commission submits a slate of approved candidates who must obtain 50-percent of valid votes to be elected; if not, a byelection may be held or the seat remains vacant

elections: last held on 3 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018)

election results: Cuba's Communist Party is the only legal party, and officially sanctioned candidates run unopposed
Judicial branch: highest court(s): People's Supreme Court (consists of court president, vice president, 41 professional justices, and NA lay judges); organization includes the State Council, criminal, civil, administrative, labor, crimes against the state, and military courts) judge selection and term of office: professional judges elected by the National Assembly to serve 2.5-year terms; lay judges nominated by workplace collectives and neighborhood associations and elected by municipal or provincial assemblies; lay judges appointed for 5-year terms and serve up to 30 days per year

subordinate courts: People's Provincial Courts; People's Regional Courts; People's Courts
Political parties and leaders: Cuban Communist Party or PCC [Raul CASTRO Ruz, first secretary]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Cuban Commission for Human Rights and National Reconciliation Damas de Blanco (Ladies in White) Patriotic Union of Cuba other: political dissidents and bloggers
International organization participation: ACP, ALBA, AOSIS, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IAEA, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS (excluded from formal participation since 1962), OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, Petrocaribe, PIF (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): royal palm; national colors: red, white, blue
National anthem: name: "La Bayamesa" (The Bayamo Song)
lyrics/music: Pedro FIGUEREDO

note: adopted 1940; Pedro FIGUEREDO first performed "La Bayamesa" in 1868 during the Ten Years War against the Spanish; a leading figure in the uprising, FIGUEREDO was captured in 1870 and executed by a firing squad; just prior to the fusillade he is reputed to have shouted, "Morir por la Patria es vivir" (To die for the country is to live), a line from the anthem
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jose Ramon CABANAS Rodriguez (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 2630 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 797-8518
consulate(s) general: NA
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Jeffrey DELAURENTIS (since 20 July 2015)
embassy: Calzada between L & M Streets, Vedado, Havana
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [53] (7) 839-4100
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The government continues to balance the need for loosening its socialist economic system against a desire for firm political control. In April 2011, the government held the first Cuban Communist Party Congress in almost 13 years, during which leaders approved a plan for wide-ranging economic changes. Since then, the government has slowly and incrementally implemented limited economic reforms, including allowing Cubans to buy electronic appliances and cell phones, stay in hotels, and buy and sell used cars. The government has cut state sector jobs as part of the reform process, and it has opened up some retail services to "self-employment," leading to the rise of so-called "cuentapropistas" or entrepreneurs. Approximately 476,000 Cuban workers are currently registered as self-employed. The Cuban regime has updated its economic model to include permitting the private ownership and sale of real estate and new vehicles, allowing private farmers to sell agricultural goods directly to hotels, allowing the creation of non-agricultural cooperatives, adopting a new foreign investment law, and launching a “Special Development Zone” around the Mariel port. Since late 2000, Venezuela has provided petroleum products to Cuba on preferential terms, supplying nearly 100,000 barrels per day. Cuba has been paying for the oil, in part, with the services of Cuban personnel in Venezuela, including some 30,000 medical professionals.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $128.5 billion (2014 est.) $126.9 billion (2013 est.) $123.5 billion (2012 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $77.15 billion (2013 est.) note: data are in Cuban Pesos at CUP 1 = US$ Official Exchange Rate
GDP - real growth rate: 1.3% (2014 est.) 2.7% (2013 est.) 3% (2012 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $11,600 (2014 est.) $11,500 (2013 est.) $11,200 (2012 est.)

note: data are in 2014 US dollars
Gross national saving: 6% of GDP (2015 est.) 12.5% of GDP (2014 est.) 13.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 55.9%
government consumption: 34.2%
investment in fixed capital: 9.6%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 17.5%
imports of goods and services: -17.1% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 55.9%
government consumption: 34.2%
investment in fixed capital: 9.6%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 17.5%
imports of goods and services: -17.1% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: sugar, tobacco, citrus, coffee, rice, potatoes, beans; livestock
Industries: petroleum, nickel, cobalt, pharmaceuticals, tobacco, construction, steel, cement, agricultural machinery, sugar
Industrial production growth rate: -0.2% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 5.117 million note: state sector 72.3%, non-state sector 27.7% (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 18%
industry: 10%
services: 72% (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate: 2.5% (2016 est.) 2.4% (2015 est.) note: these are official rates; unofficial estimates are about double the official figures
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $52.37 billion
expenditures: $58.59 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 67.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 32.7% of GDP (2016 est.) 34.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (2016 est.) 4.6% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$145.7 million (2015 est.) $1.996 billion (2014 est.)
Exports: $3.428 billion (2016 est.) $3.903 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: petroleum, nickel, medical products, sugar, tobacco, fish, citrus, coffee
Exports - partners: Canada 17.7%, Venezuela 13.8%, China 13%, Netherlands 6.4%, Spain 5.4%, Belize 4.7% (2015)
Imports: $12.34 billion (2016 est.) $13.48 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: petroleum, food, machinery and equipment, chemicals
Imports - partners: Venezuela 31.8%, China 17.6%, Spain 10%, Brazil 4.8% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $13.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $12.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $26.32 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $26 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $4.138 billion (2006 est.)
Exchange rates: Cuban pesos (CUP) per US dollar - 1 (2016 est.) 1 (2015 est.) 1 (2014 est.) 22.7 (2013 est.) 1 (2012 est.)
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Electricity - production: 18 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 15 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 6.6 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 99.3% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0.7% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0.1% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Crude oil - production: 50,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 74,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 111,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 124 million bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 98,480 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 178,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 19,690 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 26,560 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 900 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 900 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 70.79 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 26 million Mt (2013 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total: 3.335 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 30 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: fixed-line and mobile services still under the monopoly of state-run ETESCA; mobile-cellular telephone service is expensive and must be paid in convertible pesos; Cuban Government has opened Internet cafes around the island, which are expensive and offer

domestic: fixed-line density remains low at about 10 per 100 inhabitants; mobile-cellular service expanding but remains only about 30 per 100 persons

international: country code - 53; the ALBA-1 fiber-optic submarine cable links Cuba, Jamaica, and Venezuela; fiber-optic cable laid to but not linked to US network; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region) (2015)
Broadcast media: government owns and controls all broadcast media with private ownership of electronic media prohibited; government operates 4 national TV networks and many local TV stations; government operates 6 national radio networks, an international station, and man (2007)
Internet country code: .cu
Internet users: total: 3.432 million percent of population: 31.1% note: private citizens are prohibited from buying computers or accessing the Internet without special authorization; foreigners may access the Internet in large hotels but are subject to firewalls; some Cubans buy illegal passwords on the black market or take advantage of public outlets to access limited email and the government-controlled "intranet" (July 2015 est.)
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Airports: 133 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 64
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 27 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 69

914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 58 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 41 km; oil 230 km (2013)
Railways: total 8,285 km
standard gauge: 8,125 km 1.435-m gauge (105 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 160 km 1.000-m gauge

note: 82 km of standard gauge track is not for public use (2014)
Roadways: total 60,858 km
paved: 29,820 km (includes 639 km of expressways)
unpaved: 31,038 km (2001)
Waterways: 240 km (almost all navigable inland waterways are near the mouths of rivers) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 3

by type: cargo 1, passenger 1, refrigerated cargo 1

registered in other countries: 5 (Curacao 1, Panama 2, unknown 2) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Antilla, Cienfuegos, Guantanamo, Havana, Matanzas, Mariel, Nuevitas Bay, Santiago de Cuba
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The collapse of the Soviet Union deprived the Cuban military of its major economic and logistic support and had a significant impact on the state of Cuban equipment; the army remains well trained and professional in nature; the lack of replacement parts for its existing equipment has increasingly affected operational capabilities (2013)
Military branches: Revolutionary Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias, FAR): Revolutionary Army (Ejercito Revolucionario, ER, includes Territorial Militia Troops (Milicia de Tropas de Territoriales, MTT)), Revolutionary Navy (Marina de Guerra Revolucionaria, MGR, includes Marine Corps), Revolutionary Air and Air Defense Forces (Defensas Anti-Aereas y Fuerza Aerea Revolucionaria, DAAFAR); Youth Labor Army (Ejercito Juvenil del Trabajo, EJT) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 17-28 years of age for compulsory military service; 2-year service obligation; both sexes subject to military service (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to US and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the facility can terminate the lease
Illicit drugs: territorial waters and air space serve as transshipment zone for US- and European-bound drugs; established the death penalty for certain drug-related crimes in 1999 (2008)
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook

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