Micronesia Population: 103,643

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 History
The Caroline Islands are a widely scattered archipelago in the western Pacific Ocean; they became part of a UN Trust Territory under US administration following World War II. The eastern four island groups adopted a constitution in 1979 and chose to become the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). (The westernmost island group became Palau.) Independence came in 1986 under a Compact of Free Association (COFA) with the US, which was amended in 2004. The COFA has been a force for stability and democracy in the FSM since it came into force in 1986. Present concerns include economic uncertainty after 2023 when direct US economic assistance is scheduled to end, large-scale unemployment, overfishing, overdependence on US foreign aid, and state perceptions of inequitable allocation of US aid. As a signatory to the COFA with the US, eligible Micronesians can live, work, and study in any part of the US and its territories without a visa - this privilege reduces stresses on the island economy and the environment. Micronesians serve in the US armed forces and military recruiting from the Federated States of Micronesia, per capita, is higher than many US states.

 Geography
    Composed of four major island groups totaling 607 islands
Location: Oceania, island group in the North Pacific Ocean, about three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to Indonesia
Geographic coordinates: 6 55 N, 158 15 E
Area: total: 702 sq km
land: 702 sq km
water: 0 sq km (fresh water only)

note: includes Pohnpei (Ponape), Chuuk (Truk) Islands, Yap Islands, and Kosrae (Kosaie)

Size comparison: four times the size of Washington, DC (land area only)
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 6,112 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; heavy year-round rainfall, especially in the eastern islands; located on southern edge of the typhoon belt with occasionally severe damage
Terrain: islands vary geologically from high mountainous islands to low, coral atolls; volcanic outcroppings on Pohnpei, Kosrae, and Chuuk
Natural resources: timber, marine products, deep-seabed minerals, phosphate
Land use: agricultural land: 25.5% (2011 est.) arable land: 2.3% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 19.7% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 3.5% (2011 est.) forest: 74.5% (2011 est.)
other: 0% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 0 sq km n/a (2012)
Natural hazards: typhoons (June to December)
Current Environment Issues: overfishing; climate change; water pollution, toxic pollution from mining; solid waste disposal
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Micronesian(s)
adjective: Micronesian; Chuukese, Kosraen(s), Pohnpeian(s), Yapese
Ethnic groups: Chuukese/Mortlockese 49.3%, Pohnpeian 29.8%, Kosraean 6.3%, Yapese 5.7%, Yap outer islanders 5.1%, Polynesian 1.6%, Asian 1.4%, other 0.8% (2010 est.)
Languages: English (official and common language), Chuukese, Kosrean, Pohnpeian, Yapese, Ulithian, Woleaian, Nukuoro, Kapingamarangi
Religions: Roman Catholic 54.7%, Protestant 41.1% (includes Congregational 38.5%, Baptist 1.1%, Seventh Day Adventist 0.8%, Assembly of God 0.7%), Mormon 1.5%, other 1.9%, none 0.7%, unspecified 0.1% (2010 est.)
Population: 103,643 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 29.81% (male 15,707 /female 15,186)
15-24 years: 19.38% (male 10,068 /female 10,020)
25-54 years: 39.57% (male 19,799 /female 21,208)
55-64 years: 7.09% (male 3,574 /female 3,777)
65 years and over: 4.15% (male 1,943 /female 2,361) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 62.4 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 55.3 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 7.1 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 14.1 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 25.5 years
male: 24.7 years
female: 26.2 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.55% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 19.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 4.2 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -20.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 22.7% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 1.05% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 7,000 PALIKIR (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 100 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 19.1 deaths/1,000 live births male: 21.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 16.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.4 years male: 71.3 years
female: 75.6 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.37 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Physicians density: 0.19 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density: 3.2 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 94.8% of population
rural: 87.4% of population
total: 89% of population

unimproved:
urban: 5.2% of population
rural: 12.6% of population
total: 11% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 85.1% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 49% of population (2015 est.)
total: 57.1% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 14.9% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 51% of population (2015 est.)
total: 42.9% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: n/a
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: n/a
HIV/AIDS - deaths: n/a
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 45.8% (2016)
Education expenditures: 12.5% of GDP (2015) Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 18.9% male: 10.4% female: 29.9% (2014)
Literacy:
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Federated States of Micronesia
conventional short form: none
local long form: Federated States of Micronesia
local short form: none
former: New Philippines; Caroline Islands; Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, Ponape, Truk, and Yap Districts
abbreviation: FSM
etymology: the term "Micronesia" is a 19th-century construct of two Greek words, "micro" (small) and "nesoi" (islands), and refers to thousands of small islands in the western Pacific Ocean
Government type: federal republic in free association with the US
Capital: name: Palikir
geographic coordinates: 6 55 N, 158 09 E
time difference: UTC+11 (16 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

note: Micronesia has two time zones
Administrative divisions: 4 states; Chuuk (Truk), Kosrae (Kosaie), Pohnpei (Ponape), Yap
Independence: 3 November 1986 (from the US-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday: Constitution Day, 10 May (1979)
Constitution: history: drafted June 1975, ratified 1 October 1978, entered into force 10 May 1979 amendments: proposed by Congress, by a constitutional convention, or by public petition; passage requires approval by at least three-fourths majority of votes in at least three-fourths of the states; note – at least every 10 years as part of a general or special election, voters are asked whether to hold a constitution convention; a majority of affirmative votes is required to proceed; amended 1990 (2018)
Legal system: mixed legal system of common and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President David W. PANUELO (since 11 May 2019); Vice President Yosiwo P. GEORGE (since 11 May 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President David W. PANUELO (since 11 May 2019); Vice President Yosiwo P. GEORGE (since 11 May 2015)

cabinet: Cabinet includes the vice president and the heads of the 8 executive departments elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected by Congress from among the 4 'at large' senators for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 May 2019 (next to be held in 2023)

election results: David W. PANUELO elected president by Congress; Yosiwo P. GEORGE reelected vice president
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Congress (14 seats; 10 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 2-year terms and 4 at- large members directly elected from each of the 4 states by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 5 March 2019 (next to be held in March 2021)

election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independent 14; composition - men 14, women 0
Judicial branch: highest courts: Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and not more than 5 associate justices and organized into appellate and criminal divisions) judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president of the Federated States of Micronesia with the approval of two-thirds of Congress; justices appointed for life

subordinate courts: the highest state-level courts are: Chuuk Supreme Court; Korsae State Court; Pohnpei State Court; Yap State Court
Political parties and leaders: no formal parties
International organization participation: ACP, ADB, AOSIS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IMF, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, WHO, WMO
National symbol(s): four, five-pointed, white stars on a light blue field;
national colors: light blue, white
National anthem: name: Patriots of Micronesia
lyrics/music: unknown

note: adopted 1991; also known as "Across All Micronesia"; the music is based on the 1820 German patriotic song "Ich hab mich ergeben", which was the West German national anthem from 1949-1950; variants of this tune are used in Johannes Brahms' "Festival Overture" and Gustav Mahler's "Third Symphony"
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Akillino Harris SUSAIA (since 24 April 2017)
chancery: 1725 N Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 223-4383
FAX: [1] (202) 223-4391
consulate(s) general: Honolulu (HI), Tamuning (Guam)
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Robert Annan RILEY III (since 16 August 2016)
embassy: 1986 U.S. Embassy Place, Kolonia, Pohnpei, FM 96941
mailing address: P. O. Box 1286, Kolonia, Pohnpei, 96941; U.S. Embassy in Micronesia, 4120 Kolonia Place, Washington, D.C. 20521-4120
telephone: [691] 320-2187
FAX: [691] 320-2186
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 Economy
Economic activity consists largely of subsistence farming and fishing, and government, which employs two-thirds of the adult working population and receives funding largely - 58% in 2013 – from Compact of Free Association assistance provided by the US. The islands have few commercially valuable mineral deposits. The potential for tourism is limited by isolation, lack of adequate facilities, and limited internal air and water transportation. Under the terms of the original Compact, the US provided $1.3 billion in grants and aid from 1986 to 2001. The US and the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) negotiated a second (amended) Compact agreement in 2002-03 that took effect in 2004. The amended Compact runs for a 20-year period to 2023; during which the US will provide roughly $2.1 billion to the FSM. The amended Compact also develops a trust fund for the FSM that will provide a comparable income stream beyond 2024 when Compact grants end. The country's medium-term economic outlook appears fragile because of dependence on US assistance and lackluster performance of its small and stagnant private sector.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $348 million (2017 est.) $341.1 million (2016 est.) $331.4 million (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $328 million (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2% (2017 est.) 2.9% (2016 est.) 3.9% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $3,400 (2017 est.) $3,300 (2016 est.) $3,200 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 83.5% (2013 est.) government consumption: 48.4% (2016 est.) investment in fixed capital: 29.5% (2016 est.) investment in inventories: 1.9% (2016 est.) exports of goods and services: 27.5% (2016 est.) imports of goods and services: -77% (2016 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 26.3% (2013 est.) industry: 18.9% (2013 est.) services: 54.8% (2013 est.)
Agriculture - products: taro, yams, coconuts, bananas, cassava (manioc, tapioca), sakau (kava), Kosraen citrus, betel nuts, black pepper, fish, pigs, chickens
Industries: tourism, construction; specialized aquaculture, craft items (shell and wood)
Industrial production growth rate: n/a
Labor force: 37,920 (2010 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 0.9%
industry: 5.2%
services: 93.9% (2013 est.)

note: two-thirds of the labor force are government employees
Unemployment rate: 16.2% (2010 est.)
Population below poverty line: 26.7% (2000 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: n/a
highest 10%: n/a
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 61.1 (2013 est.)
Budget: revenues: 213.8 million (FY12/13 est.)
expenditures: 192.1 million (FY12/13 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 65.2% (of GDP) (FY12/13 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): 6.6% (of GDP) (FY12/13 est.)
Public debt: 24.5% of GDP (2017 est.) 25.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.5% (2017 est.) 0.5% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: $12 million (2017 est.) $11 million (2016 est.)
Exports: $88.3 million (2013 est.)
Exports - commodities: fish, sakau (kava), betel nuts, black pepper
Imports: $167.8 million (2015 est.) $258.5 million (2013 est.)
Imports - commodities: food, beverages, clothing, computers, household electronics, appliances, manufactured goods, automobiles, machinery and equipment, furniture, tools
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $203.7 million (31 December 2017 est.) $135.1 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $93.6 million (2013 est.) $93.5 million (2012 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $15.8 million (2013 est.) $34.4 million (2012 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: n/a
Exchange rates: the US dollar is used
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 192 million kWh (2002)
Electricity - consumption: 178.6 million kWh (2002)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 18,000 kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 96% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 1% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 3% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2014)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2014)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2014)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2014)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2014)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2014)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 105 Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 23,114
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 22 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: adequate system (2016)

domestic: islands interconnected by shortwave radiotelephone (used mostly for government purposes), satellite (Intelsat) ground stations, and some coaxial and fiber-optic cable; mobile-cellular service available on the major islands (2016)

international: country code - 691; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); in 2015, Fiber Optic was launched and is the primary communication path to the outside world (2016)
Broadcast media: no TV broadcast stations; each state has a multi-channel cable service with TV transmissions carrying roughly 95% imported programming and 5% local programming; about a half-dozen radio stations (2009)
Internet country code: .fm
Internet users: total: 33,000
percent of population: 31.5% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 6 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 6
(2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2017)
Roadways: note - paved and unpaved circumferential roads, most interior roads are unpaved
Merchant marine: total 63

by type: general cargo 40, oil tanker 6, other 17 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Colonia (Tamil Harbor), Molsron Lele Harbor, Pohnepi Harbor
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 Military
Defense is the responsibility of the US
Military branches: no regular military forces (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
Illicit drugs: major consumer of cannabis
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