Ghana Population: 26,908,262


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Formed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland trust territory, Ghana in 1957 became the first sub-Saharan country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. Ghana endured a long series of coups before Lt. Jerry RAWLINGS took power in 1981 and banned political parties. After approving a new constitution and restoring multiparty politics in 1992, RAWLINGS won presidential elections in 1992 and 1996 but was constitutionally prevented from running for a third term in 2000. John KUFUOR succeeded him and was reelected in 2004. John Atta MILLS won the 2008 presidential election and took over as head of state, but he died in July 2012 and was constitutionally succeeded by his vice president, John Dramani MAHAMA, who subsequently won the December 2012 presidential election.

Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake (manmade reservoir) by surface area (8,482 sq km; 3,275 sq mi); the lake was created following the completion of the Akosombo Dam in 1965, which holds back the White Volta and Black Volta Rivers
Location: Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo
Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 2 00 W
Area: total: 238,533 sq km
land: 227,533 sq km
water: 11,000 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Oregon
Land Boundaries: total: 2,420 km border countries (3): Burkina Faso 602 km, Cote d'Ivoire 720 km, Togo 1,098 km
Coastline: 539 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north
Terrain: mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber, hydropower, petroleum, silver, salt, limestone
Land use: agricultural land: 69.1% arable land 20.7%; permanent crops 11.9%; permanent pasture 36.5% forest: 21.2%
other: 9.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 340 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: dry, dusty, northeastern harmattan winds from January to March; droughts
Current Environment Issues: recurrent drought in north severely affects agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
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Nationality: noun: Ghanaian(s)
adjective: Ghanaian
Ethnic groups: Akan 47.5%, Mole-Dagbon 16.6%, Ewe 13.9%, Ga-Dangme 7.4%, Gurma 5.7%, Guan 3.7%, Grusi 2.5%, Mande 1.1%, other 1.4% (2010 est.)
Languages: Asante 16%, Ewe 14%, Fante 11.6%, Boron (Brong) 4.9%, Dagomba 4.4%, Dangme 4.2%, Dagarte (Dagaba) 3.9%, Kokomba 3.5%, Akyem 3.2%, Ga 3.1%, other 31.2% note: English is the official language (2010 est.)
Religions: Christian 71.2% (Pentecostal/Charismatic 28.3%, Protestant 18.4%, Catholic 13.1%, other 11.4%), Muslim 17.6%, traditional 5.2%, other 0.8%, none 5.2% (2010 est.)
Population: 26,908,262 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 38.2% (male 5,164,505/female 5,113,185)
15-24 years: 18.66% (male 2,498,185/female 2,522,353)
25-54 years: 34.05% (male 4,445,321/female 4,716,311)
55-64 years: 4.91% (male 642,984/female 678,784)
65 years and over: 4.19% (male 520,589/female 606,045) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 73%
youth dependency ratio: 67.2%
elderly dependency ratio: 5.9%
potential support ratio: 17% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 21 years
male: 20.5 years
female: 21.5 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.18% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 30.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 54% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: Kumasi 2.599 million; ACCRA (capital) 2.277 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 22.6 note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 319 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 36.3 deaths/1,000 live births male: 40.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 32.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 66.6 years male: 64.1 years
female: 69.1 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.03 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 19.5% (2013)
Health expenditures: 3.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 0.1 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Hospital bed density: 0.9 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 92.6% of population
rural: 84% of population
total: 88.7% of population

urban: 7.4% of population
rural: 16% of population
total: 11.3% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 20.2% of population
rural: 8.6% of population
total: 14.9% of population

urban: 79.8% of population
rural: 91.4% of population
total: 85.1% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.61% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 274,600 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 12,600 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 10.9% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 11% (2014)
Education expenditures: 6.2% of GDP (2014)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 76.6%
male: 82%
female: 71.4% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 11 years male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 11.2% male: 10.2%
female: 12% (2010 est.)
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Ghana
conventional short form: Ghana
former: Gold Coast
etymology: named for the medieval West African kingdom of the same name, but whose location was actually further north than the modern country
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Accra
geographic coordinates: 5 33 N, 0 13 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western
Independence: 6 March 1957 (from the UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 6 March (1957)
Constitution: several previous; latest drafted 31 March 1992, approved and promulgated 28 April 1992, entered into force 7 January 1993; amended 1996 (2016)
Legal system: mixed system of English common law and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (since 7 January 2017); Vice President Mahamudu BAWUMIA (NPP) (since 7 January 2017); the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (since 7 January 2017); Vice President Mahamudu BAWUMIA (NPP) (since 7 January 2017)

cabinet: Council of Ministers; nominated by the president, approved by Parliament elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 December 2016 (next to be held in December 2020)

election results: Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO elected president; percent of vote - Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (NPP) 54.1%, John Dramani MAHAMA (NDC) 44.0%, other 1.8%; note - results after 267 of 275 constituencies declared
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Parliament (275 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 7 December 2016 (next to be held in December 2020)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NDC 148, NPP 123, PNC 1, independent 3
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of a chief justice and 12 justices) judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the president in consultation with the Council of State (a small advisory body of prominent citizens) and with the approval of Parliament; other justices appointed by the president upon the advice of the Judicial Council (an 18-member independent body of judicial, military and police officials, and presidential nominees) and on the advice of the Council of State; justices can retire at age 60, with compulsory retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Circuit Court; District Court; regional tribunals
Political parties and leaders: Convention People's Party or CPP [Samia NKRUMAH] National Democratic Congress or NDC [John Dramani MAHAMA] New Patriotic Party or NPP [Nana AFUKO-ADDO] People's National Convention or PNC [Hassan AYARIGA] note: listed are four of the more popular political parties as of December 2012; there are more than 20 registered parties
Political pressure groups and leaders: Christian Aid (water rights) Committee for Joint Action or CJA (social and economic issues) National Coalition Against the Privatization of Water or CAP (water rights) Oxfam (water rights) Public Citizen (water rights) Students Coalition Against EPA [Kwabena Ososukene OKAI] (education reform) Third World Network (social and economic issues)
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, C, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): black star, golden eagle; national colors: red, yellow, green, black
National anthem: name: "God Bless Our Homeland Ghana"
lyrics/music: unknown/Philip GBEHO

note: music adopted 1957, lyrics adopted 1966; the lyrics were changed twice, in 1960 when a republic was declared and after a 1966 coup
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Lt. Gen. Joseph Henry SMITH (since September 2014)
chancery: 3512 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 686-4520
FAX: [1] (202) 686-4527
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Robert P. JACKSON (since 4 February 2016)
embassy: 24 Fourth Circular Rd., Cantonments, Accra
mailing address: P.O. Box 194, Accra
telephone: [233] 030-274-1000
FAX: [233] 030-274-1389
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Ghana's economy was strengthened by a quarter century of relatively sound management, a competitive business environment, and sustained reductions in poverty levels, but in recent years has suffered the consequences of loose fiscal policy, high budget and current account deficits, and a depreciating currency. Ghana has a market-based economy with relatively few policy barriers to trade and investment in comparison with other countries in the region, and Ghana is well-endowed with natural resources. Agriculture accounts for nearly one-quarter of GDP and employs more than half of the workforce, mainly small landholders. The services sector accounts for about half of GDP. Gold and cocoa exports, and individual remittances, are major sources of foreign exchange. Expansion of Ghana’s nascent oil industry has boosted economic growth, but the recent oil price crash reduced by half Ghana’s 2015 oil revenue. Production at Jubilee, Ghana's offshore oilfield, began in mid-December 2010 and currently produces roughly 110,000 barrels per day. The country’s first gas processing plant at Atubao is also producing natural gas from the Jubilee field, providing power to several of Ghana’s thermal power plants. As of 2015, the biggest single economic issue facing Ghana is the lack of consistent electricity. While the MAHAMA administration is taking steps to improve the situation, little progress has been made. Ghana signed a $920 million extended credit facility with the IMF in April 2015 to help it address its growing economic crisis. The IMF fiscal targets will require Ghana to reduce the fiscal deficit by cutting subsidies, decreasing the bloated public sector wage bill, strengthening revenue administration, and increasing revenues. The challenge for Ghana will come as the MAHAMA Administration approaches the November 2016 elections, facing public dissatisfaction in the midst of economic austerity.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $120.8 billion (2016 est.) $116.9 billion (2015 est.) $112.5 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $42.76 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.3% (2016 est.) 3.9% (2015 est.) 4% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $4,400 (2016 est.) $4,300 (2015 est.) $4,300 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 16.1% of GDP (2016 est.) 17.1% of GDP (2015 est.) 17% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 66.6%
government consumption: 19.6%
investment in fixed capital: 24.5%
investment in inventories: 0.8%
exports of goods and services: 36.7%
imports of goods and services: -48.2% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 66.6%
government consumption: 19.6%
investment in fixed capital: 24.5%
investment in inventories: 0.8%
exports of goods and services: 36.7%
imports of goods and services: -48.2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: cocoa, rice, cassava (manioc, tapioca), peanuts, corn, shea nuts, bananas; timber
Industries: mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum smelting, food processing, cement, small commercial ship building, petroleum
Industrial production growth rate: -0.5% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 11.99 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 44.7%
industry: 14.4%
services: 40.9% (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate: 5.2% (2013 est.)
Population below poverty line: 24.2% (2013 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 32.8% (2006)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 42.3 (2012-13) 41.9 (2005-06)
Budget: revenues: $9.068 billion
expenditures: $11.55 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 21.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 73.7% of GDP (2016 est.) 71.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 17.8% (2016 est.) 17.2% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$2.693 billion (2016 est.) -$2.836 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $10.25 billion (2016 est.) $10.36 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: oil, gold, cocoa, timber, tuna, bauxite, aluminum, manganese ore, diamonds, horticultural products
Exports - partners: India 25.2%, Switzerland 12.2%, China 10.6%, France 5.7% (2015)
Imports: $13.73 billion (2016 est.) $13.47 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: capital equipment, refined petroleum, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: China 32.6%, Nigeria 14%, Netherlands 5.5%, US 5.4% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $6.137 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $5.885 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $21.17 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $19.15 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $19.85 billion (31 December 2013 est.) $118 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $16.62 billion (31 December 2013 est.) $109 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $3.465 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $3.097 billion (31 December 2011 est.) $3.531 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Exchange rates: cedis (GHC) per US dollar - 3.992 (2016 est.) 3.712 (2015 est.) 3.712 (2014 est.) 2.895 (2013 est.) 1.8 (2012 est.)
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Electricity - production: 13 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 9.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 500 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 51 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 2.847 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 45.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 54.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 102,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 98,700 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 26,040 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 660 million bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 10,640 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 83,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 1,977 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 72,850 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 50 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 650 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 600 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 22.65 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 11 million Mt (2013 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total: 35.008 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 133 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: primarily microwave radio relay; wireless local loop has been installed; outdated and unreliable fixed-line infrastructure heavily concentrated in Accra

domestic: competition among multiple mobile-cellular providers has spurred growth with a subscribership of more than 130 per 100 persons and rising

international: country code - 233; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC, Main One, and GLO-1 fiber-optic submarine cables that provide connectivity to South Africa, Europe, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); microwave radio relay link to Panaf (2015)
Broadcast media: state-owned TV station, 2 state-owned radio networks; several privately owned TV stations and a large number of privately owned radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are accessible; several cable and satellite TV subscriptio (2007)
Internet country code: .gh
Internet users: total: 6.181 million percent of population: 23.5% (July 2015 est.)
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Airports: 10 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 7
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 3

914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 394 km; oil 20 km; refined products 361 km (2013)
Railways: total 947 km

narrow gauge: 947 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 109,515 km
paved: 13,787 km
unpaved: 95,728 km (2009)
Waterways: 1,293 km (168 km for launches and lighters on Volta, Ankobra, and Tano Rivers; 1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways on Lake Volta) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 4

by type: petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 3

foreign-owned: 2 (Brazil 1, South Korea 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Takoradi, Tema
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Military branches: Ghana Army, Ghana Navy, Ghana Air Force (2012)
Military service age and obligation: 18-26 years of age for voluntary military service, with basic education certificate; no conscription; must be HIV/AIDS negative (2012)
Military expenditures: 0.56% of GDP (2014) 0.61% of GDP (2013) 0.27% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: disputed maritime border between Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 11,419 (Cote d'Ivoire; flight from 2010 post-election fighting) (2016)
Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; major transit hub for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and, to a lesser extent, South American cocaine destined for Europe and the US; widespread crime and money-laundering problem, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center; significant domestic cocaine and cannabis use
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