Equatorial Guinea Population: 759,451

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 History
Equatorial Guinea gained independence in 1968 after 190 years of Spanish rule; it is one of the smallest countries in Africa consisting of a mainland territory and five inhabited islands. The capital of Malabo is located on the island of Bioko, approximately 25 km from the Cameroonian coastline in the Gulf of Guinea. Between 1968 and 1979, autocratic President Francisco MACIAS NGUEMA virtually destroyed all of the country's political, economic, and social institutions before being deposed by his nephew Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO in a coup. President OBIANG has ruled since October 1979 and was reelected in 2016. Although nominally a constitutional democracy since 1991, presidential and legislative elections since 1996 have generally been labeled as flawed. The president exerts almost total control over the political system and has placed legal and bureaucratic barriers that prevent political opposition. Equatorial Guinea has experienced rapid economic growth due to the discovery of large offshore oil reserves, and in the last decade has become Sub-Saharan Africa's third largest oil exporter. Despite the country's economic windfall from oil production, resulting in a massive increase in government revenue in recent years, the drop in global oil prices has placed significant strain on the state budget. Equatorial Guinea continues to seek to diversify its economy and to increase foreign investment despite limited improvements in the population's living standards. Equatorial Guinea is the host of major regional and international conferences and continues to seek a greater role in regional affairs.

 Geography
Insular and continental regions widely separated
Location: Central Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Cameroon and Gabon
Geographic coordinates: 2 00 N, 10 00 E
Area: total: 28,051 sq km
land: 28,051 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Maryland
Land Boundaries: total: 528 km border countries (2): Cameroon 183 km, Gabon 345 km
Coastline: 296 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; always hot, humid
Terrain: coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are volcanic
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, timber, gold, bauxite, diamonds, tantalum, sand and gravel, clay
Land use: agricultural land: 10.1% arable land 4.3%; permanent crops 2.1%; permanent pasture 3.7% forest: 57.5%
other: 32.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: NA
Natural hazards: violent windstorms; flash floods volcanism: Santa Isabel (elev. 3,007 m), which last erupted in 1923, is the country's only historically active volcano; Santa Isabel, along with two dormant volcanoes, form Bioko Island in the Gulf of Guinea
Current Environment Issues: tap water is non-potable; deforestation
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s)
adjective: Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean
Ethnic groups: Fang 85.7%, Bubi 6.5%, Mdowe 3.6%, Annobon 1.6%, Bujeba 1.1%, other 1.4% (1994 census)
Languages: Spanish (official) 67.6%, other (includes French (official), Fang, Bubi) 32.4% (1994 census)
Religions: nominally Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic, pagan practices
Population: 759,451 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 40.15% (male 154,896/female 150,010)
15-24 years: 19.63% (male 75,914/female 73,194)
25-54 years: 31.94% (male 120,999/female 121,587)
55-64 years: 4.3% (male 14,052/female 18,583)
65 years and over: 3.98% (male 12,627/female 17,589) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 72.9%
youth dependency ratio: 67.9%
elderly dependency ratio: 5%
potential support ratio: 20% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 19.6 years
male: 19.1 years
female: 20.1 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.48% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 32.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 39.9% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.12% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: MALABO (capital) 145,000 (2014)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.76 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 342 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 67.2 deaths/1,000 live births male: 68.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 66.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 64.2 years male: 63.1 years
female: 65.4 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.48 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 12.6% (2011)
Health expenditures: 3.8% of GDP (2014)
Hospital bed density: 2.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 72.5% of population
rural: 31.5% of population
total: 47.9% of population

unimproved:
urban: 27.5% of population
rural: 68.5% of population
total: 52.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 79.9% of population
rural: 71% of population
total: 74.5% of population

unimproved:
urban: 20.1% of population
rural: 29% of population
total: 25.5% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 4.88% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 27,400 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,100 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 16.2% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 5.6% (2010)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.3%
male: 97.4%
female: 93% (2015 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Equatorial Guinea
conventional short form: Equatorial Guinea
local long form: Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial/Republique de Guinee Equatoriale
local short form: Guinea Ecuatorial/Guinee Equatoriale
former: Spanish Guinea
etymology: the country is named for the Guinea region of West Africa that lies along the Gulf of Guinea and stretches north to the Sahel; the "equatorial" refers to the fact that the country lies just north of the Equator
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Malabo; note - a new capital of Oyala is being built on the mainland near Djibloho; Malabo is on the island of Bioko
geographic coordinates: 3 45 N, 8 47 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Annobon, Bioko Norte, Bioko Sur, Centro Sur, Kie-Ntem, Litoral, Wele-Nzas
Independence: 12 October 1968 (from Spain)
National holiday: Independence Day, 12 October (1968)
Constitution: approved by referendum 17 November 1991; amended several times, last in 2012 (2016)
Legal system: mixed system of civil and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG Nguema Mbasogo (since 3 August 1979 when he seized power in a military coup)

head of government: Prime Minister Francisco Pascual Eyegue OBAMA Asue (since 23 June 2016); First Deputy Prime Minister Clemente Engonga NGUEMA Onguene; Second Deputy Prime Minister Alfonso Mesie MIBUY; Third Deputy Prime Minister Alfonso Nsue MOKUY

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 April 2016 (next to be held in 2023); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president

election results: Teodoro OBIANG Nguema Mbasogo reelected president; percent of vote - Teodoro OBIANG Nguema Mbasogo (PDGE) 93.7%
Legislative branch: description: bicameral National Assembly or Asemblea Nacional, formerly the unicameral Parliament, consists of the Senate or Senado (70 seats; 55 members directly elected by simple majority vote and 15 appointed by the president) and the House of People's Representatives or Camara de Representantes del Pueblo (100 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms); note - the constitutional referendum of 2011 established the Senate and was implemented at the time of the May 2013 elections

elections: last held on 26 May 2013 (next to be held in 2018)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDGE 54, CPDS 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDGE 99, CPDS 1
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of the chief justice - who is also chief of state - and 9 judges and organized into civil, criminal, commercial, labor, administrative, and customary sections); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president and 4 members) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president for 5-year terms; Constitutional Court members appointed by the president, 2 of which are nominated by the Chamber of Deputies

subordinate courts: Court of Guarantees; military courts; Courts of Appeal; first instance tribunals; district and county tribunals
Political parties and leaders: Convergence Party for Social Democracy or CPDS [Andres ESONO ONDO] Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea or PDGE [Teodoro OBIANG Nguema Mbasogo] (ruling party) Electoral Coalition or EC Popular Action of Equatorial Guinea or APGE [Carmelo MBA BACALE] Popular Union or UP [Daniel MARTINEZ AYECABA] not officially registered parties: Democratic Republican Force or FDR [Guillermo NGUEMA ELA] Independent Candidacy or CI [Gabriel NSE OBIANG OBONO] Party for Progress of Equatorial Guinea or PPGE [Severo MOTO] Union for the Center Right or UDC [Avelino MOCACHE MEAENGA] note: in November 2014, the government hosted a National Dialogue process to engage with the political opposition; the opposition particiapated with limited attendance and engagement; on March 18, 2015, the CPDS, FDR, and UP formed a coalition called the Front of Democratic Opposition or FOD
Political pressure groups and leaders: ASODEGUE (Madrid-based pressure group for democratic reform) Coalicion CEIBA (group formed by diverse, exiled political parties) C.O.R.E.D. (originally led by Raimundo Ela Nsang; based in Paris) EG Justice (US-based anti-corruption group)
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, CPLP (associate), FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO (observer)
National symbol(s): silk cotton tree; national colors: green, white, red, blue
National anthem: name: "Caminemos pisando la senda" (Let Us Tread the Path)
lyrics/music: Atanasio Ndongo MIYONO/Atanasio Ndongo MIYONO or Ramiro Sanchez LOPEZ (disputed)

note: adopted 1968
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Miguel Ntutumu EVUNA ANDEME (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 2020 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 518-5700
FAX: [1] (202) 518-5252 consul general(s): Houston
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Julie FURUTA-TOY (since January 2016)
embassy: Carretera Malabo II, Malabo, Guinea Ecuatorial
mailing address: US Embassy Malabo, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2520
telephone: [240] 333 09 57 41
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 Economy
Exploitation of oil and gas deposits, beginning in the 1990s, has driven economic growth in Equatorial Guinea, allowing per capita GDP to rise to over $29,000 in 2014. Forestry and farming are minor components of GDP. Although preindependence Equatorial Guinea counted on cocoa production for hard currency earnings, the neglect of the rural economy since independence has diminished the potential for agriculture-led growth. Subsistence farming is the dominant form of livelihood. Declining revenue from hydrocarbon production, high levels of infrastructure expenditures, lack of economic diversification, and corruption have pushed the economy into decline in recent years and led to limited improvements in the general population’s living conditions. Foreign assistance programs by the World Bank and the IMF have been cut since 1993 because of corruption and mismanagement, and as a middle income country Equatorial Guinea is now ineligible for most donor assistance. The government has been widely criticized for its lack of transparency and misuse of oil revenues and has attempted to address this issue by working towards compliance with the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative. US foreign assistance to Equatorial Guinea is limited in part because of US restrictions pursuant to the Trafficking Victims Protection Act. Equatorial Guinea hosted two economic diversification symposia in 2014 that focused on attracting investment in five sectors: agriculture and animal ranching, fishing, mining and petrochemicals, tourism, and financial services. Undeveloped mineral resources include gold, zinc, diamonds, columbite-tantalite, and other base metals.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $31.77 billion (2016 est.) $35.25 billion (2015 est.) $38.08 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $11.64 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -9.9% (2016 est.) -7.4% (2015 est.) -0.5% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $38,700 (2016 est.) $44,100 (2015 est.) $48,900 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 19.3% of GDP (2016 est.) 36.3% of GDP (2015 est.) 46.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 25.6%
government consumption: 5.7%
investment in fixed capital: 69.7%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 53.4%
imports of goods and services: -54.5% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 25.6%
government consumption: 5.7%
investment in fixed capital: 69.7%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 53.4%
imports of goods and services: -54.5% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: coffee, cocoa, rice, yams, cassava (manioc, tapioca), bananas, palm oil nuts; livestock; timber
Industries: petroleum, natural gas, sawmilling
Industrial production growth rate: -6.7% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 195,200 (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate: 22.3% (2009 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $2.436 billion
expenditures: $2.862 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 20.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 24.3% of GDP (2016 est.) 16.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.1% (2016 est.) 11.7% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$1.368 billion (2016 est.) -$2.322 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $5.064 billion (2016 est.) $7.41 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: petroleum products, timber
Exports - partners: China 16.6%, South Korea 15.1%, Spain 9%, Brazil 8.2%, Netherlands 6.8%, South Africa 6.6%, India 5.8%, UK 5.7%, France 5.7% (2015)
Imports: $3.03 billion (2016 est.) $3.953 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: petroleum sector equipment, other equipment, construction materials, vehicles
Imports - partners: Netherlands 16.9%, Spain 16.3%, China 14.8%, US 8.9%, Cote dIvoire 6%, France 4.8% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $621.9 million (31 December 2016 est.) $1.205 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $1.364 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $1.194 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange rates: Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar - 605.7 (2016 est.) 591.45 (2015 est.) 591.45 (2014 est.) 494.42 (2013 est.) 510.53 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 98 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 91.14 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 200,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 22.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 77.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 250,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 290,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 1.1 billion bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 5,200 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 5,197 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 6.55 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 1.594 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 4.956 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 36.81 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 3.7 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 533,000 subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 72 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: digital fixed-line network in most major urban areas and decent mobile cellular coverage

domestic: fixed-line density is about 2 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has been increasing and in 2015 stood at about 70 percent of the population

international: country code - 240; international communications from Bata and Malabo to African and European countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2015)
Broadcast media: state maintains control of broadcast media with domestic broadcast media limited to 1 state-owned TV station, 1 private TV station owned by the president's eldest son, 1 state-owned radio station, and 1 private radio station owned by the president's eldes (2013)
Internet country code: .gq
Internet users: total: 158,000 percent of population: 21.3% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 7 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 6
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: condensate 42 km; condensate/gas 5 km; gas 79 km; oil 71 km (2013)
Roadways: total 2,880 km
(2000)
Merchant marine: total 5

by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 1, petroleum tanker 3

foreign-owned: 1 (Norway 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Bata, Luba, Malabo LNG terminal(s) (export): Bioko Island
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 Military
Military branches: Equatorial Guinea Armed Forces (FAGE): Equatorial Guinea National Guard (Guardia Nacional de Guinea Ecuatorial, GNGE (Army), Navy, Air Force (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for selective compulsory military service, although conscription is rare in practice; 2-year service obligation; women hold only administrative positions in the Navy (2013)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: in 2002, ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but a dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River and imprecisely defined maritime coordinates in the ICJ decision delayed final delimitation; UN urged Equatorial Guinea and Gabon to resolve the sovereignty dispute over Gabon-occupied Mbane and lesser islands and to create a maritime boundary in the hydrocarbon-rich Corisco Bay
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