Mozambique Population: 24,096,669


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Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development until the mid 1990s. The ruling Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frelimo) party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement between Frelimo and rebel Mozambique National Resistance (Renamo) forces ended the fighting in 1992. In December 2004, Mozambique underwent a delicate transition as Joaquim CHISSANO stepped down after 18 years in office. His elected successor, Armando Emilio GUEBUZA, promised to continue the sound economic policies that have encouraged foreign investment. President GUEBUZA was reelected to a second term in October 2009. However, the elections were flawed by voter fraud, questionable disqualification of candidates, and Frelimo use of government resources during the campaign. As a result, Freedom House removed Mozambique from its list of electoral democracies.

The Zambezi flows through the north-central and most fertile part of the country
Location: Southeastern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania
Geographic coordinates: 18 15 S, 35 00 E
Area: total: 799,380 sq km
land: 786,380 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km

Size comparison: slightly less than twice the size of California
Land Boundaries: total: 4,571 km
border countries: Malawi 1,569 km, South Africa 491 km, Swaziland 105 km, Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km
Coastline: 2,470 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical to subtropical
Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Monte Binga 2,436 m
Natural resources: coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite
Land use: arable land: 6.51%
permanent crops: 0.25%
other: 93.24% (2011)
Irrigated land: 1,181 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: severe droughts; devastating cyclones and floods in central and southern provinces
Current Environment Issues: a long civil war and recurrent drought in the hinterlands have resulted in increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters; elephant poaching for ivory is a problem
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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Nationality: noun: Mozambican(s)
adjective: Mozambican
Ethnic groups: African 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%
Languages: Emakhuwa 25.3%, Portuguese (official) 10.7%, Xichangana 10.3%, Cisena 7.5%, Elomwe 7%, Echuwabo 5.1%, other Mozambican languages 30.1%, other 4% (1997 census)
Religions: Catholic 28.4%, Protestant 27.7% (Zionist Christian 15.5%, Evangelical Pentecostal 10.9%, Anglican 1.3%), Muslim 17.9%, other 7.2%, none 18.7% (1997 census)
Population: 24,096,669 (July 2013 est.) note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
Age structure: 0-14 years: 45.5% (male 5,515,341/female 5,457,336)
15-24 years: 21.1% (male 2,469,221/female 2,610,720)
25-54 years: 27% (male 3,035,069/female 3,461,519)
55-64 years: 3.5% (male 396,186/female 442,237)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 325,955/female 383,085) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 94.8 %
youth dependency ratio: 88.4 %
elderly dependency ratio: 6.4 %
potential support ratio: 15.6 (2013)
Median age: total: 16.8 years
male: 16.2 years
female: 17.5 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.44% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 39.08 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 12.57 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: -2.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 31.2% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 3.05% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: MAPUTO (capital) 1.589 million; Matola 761,000 (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 18.8 (2003 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 490 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 74.63 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 76.78 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 72.43 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 52.29 years
male: 51.54 years
female: 53.06 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 5.34 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 11.6% (2011)
Health expenditures: 5.2% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 0.03 physicians/1,000 population (2006)
Hospital bed density: 0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 77% of population
rural: 29% of population
total: 47% of population

urban: 23% of population
rural: 71% of population
total: 53% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 38% of population
rural: 5% of population
total: 18% of population

urban: 62% of population
rural: 95% of population
total: 82% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 11.5% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 1.4 million (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 74,000 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 4.9% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 18.3% (2008)
Education expenditures: 5% of GDP (2006)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 56.1%
male: 70.8%
female: 42.8% (2010 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 10 years
male: 10 years
female: 9 years (2011)
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique
conventional short form: Mozambique
local long form: Republica de Mocambique
local short form: Mocambique
former: Portuguese East Africa
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Maputo
geographic coordinates: 25 57 S, 32 35 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), 1 city (cidade)*; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Cidade de Maputo*, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia
Independence: 25 June 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday: Independence Day, 25 June (1975)
Constitution: 30 November 1990
Legal system: mixed legal system of Portuguese civil law, Islamic law, and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Armando Emilio GUEBUZA (since 2 February 2005)

head of government: Prime Minister Alberto Clementino VAQUINA (since 8 October 2012)

cabinet: Cabinet (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for three terms); election last held on 28 October 2009 (next to be held in 2014); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Armando GUEBUZA reelected president; percent of vote - Armando GUEBUZA 76.3%, Afonso DHLAKAMA 14.9%, Daviz SIMANGO 8.8%
Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held on 28 October 2009 (next to be held in 2014)

election results: percent of vote by party - FRELIMO 74.7%, RENAMO 17.7%, MDM 3.9%, other 3.7%; seats by party - FRELIMO 191, RENAMO 51, MDM 8
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 5 judges); Constitutional Council (consists of 7 judges) note - the Higher Council of the Judiciary is responsible for judiciary management and discipline judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president and vice president appointed by Mozambique president in consultation with the Higher Council of the Judiciary (CSMJ) and with ratification by the legislature; other judges elected by the legislature; judges serve 5-year renewable terms; Constitutional Council judges appointed - 1 by the president, 5 by the legislature, and 1 by the CSMJ; judges serve 5-year nonrenewable terms

subordinate courts: Administrative Court (capital city only); provincial courts or Tribunais Judicias de Provincia; District Courts or Tribunais Judicias de Districto; customs courts; maritime courts; courts marshal; labor courts; community courts
Political parties and leaders: Democratic Movement of Mozambique (Movimento Democratico de Mocambique) or MDM [Daviz SIMANGO] Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or FRELIMO [Armando Emilio GUEBUZA] Mozambique National Resistance (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana) or RENAMO [Afonso DHLAKAMA]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTE, president]
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, CPLP, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF (observer), OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National anthem: name: "Patria Amada" (Lovely Fatherland)
lyrics/music: Salomao J. MANHICA/unknown

note: adopted 2002
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Amelia Matos SUMBANA
chancery: 1525 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146
FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Douglas M. GRIFFITHS
embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo
mailing address: P. O. Box 783, Maputo
telephone: [258] (21) 492797
FAX: [258] (21) 490114
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At independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the world's poorest countries. Socialist mismanagement and a brutal civil war from 1977-92 exacerbated the situation. In 1987, the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy. These steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, have led to dramatic improvements in the country's growth rate. Fiscal reforms, including the introduction of a value-added tax and reform of the customs service, have improved the government's revenue collection abilities. In spite of these gains, Mozambique remained dependent upon foreign assistance for 40% of its 2012 annual budget and over half the population remained below the poverty line. Subsistence agriculture continues to employ the vast majority of the country's work force and smallholder agricultural productivity and productivity growth is weak. A substantial trade imbalance persists although aluminum production from the Mozal smelter has significantly boosted export earnings in recent years. In 2012, The Mozambican government took over Portugal's last remaining share in the Cahora Bassa Hydroelectricity Company (HCB), a signficant contributor to the Southern African Power Pool. The government has plans to expand the Cahora Bassa Dam and build additional dams to increase its electricity exports and fulfill the needs of its burgeoning domestic industries. Mozambique's once substantial foreign debt has been reduced through forgiveness and rescheduling under the IMF's Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC initiatives, and is now at a manageable level. In July 2007, the US government's Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) signed a $506.9 million Compact with Mozambique. Compact projects will end in September 2013 and are focusing on improving sanitation, roads, agriculture, and the business regulation environment in an effort to spur economic growth in the four northern provinces of the country. Citizens rioted in September 2010, after fuel, water, electricity, and bread price increases were announced. In an attempt to lessen the negative impact on people, the government implemented subsidies, decreased taxes and tariffs, and instituted other fiscal measures. Mozambique grew at an average annual rate of 6%-8% in the decade up to 2012, one of Africa's strongest performances. Mozambique's ability to attract large investment projects in natural resources is expected to fuel continued high growth in coming years. Revenues from these vast resources, including natural gas, coal, titanium and hydroelectric capacity, could overtake donor assistance within five years.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $26.69 billion (2012 est.) $24.83 billion (2011 est.) $23.13 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $14.6 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 7.5% (2012 est.) 7.3% (2011 est.) 7.1% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,200 (2012 est.) $1,100 (2011 est.) $1,100 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 0% of GDP (2012 est.) 5.2% of GDP (2011 est.) 4.8% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 77.3%
government consumption: 13.5%
investment in fixed capital: 24.8%
investment in inventories: 0.9%
exports of goods and services: 27%
imports of goods and services: -43.8% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 77.3%
government consumption: 13.5%
investment in fixed capital: 24.8%
investment in inventories: 0.9%
exports of goods and services: 27%
imports of goods and services: -43.8% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers; beef, poultry
Industries: aluminum, petroleum products, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco, food, beverages
Industrial production growth rate: 12% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 10.1 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 81%
industry: 6%
services: 13% (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate: 17% (2007 est.) 21% (1997 est.)
Population below poverty line: 52% (2009 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.9%
highest 10%: 36.7% (2008)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 45.6 (2008) 47.3 (2002)
Budget: revenues: $4.315 billion
expenditures: $4.904 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 29.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 34.6% of GDP (2012 est.) 34.5% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.1% (2012 est.) 10.4% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$2.432 billion (2012 est.) -$1.615 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $3.469 billion (2012 est.) $3.118 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: aluminum, prawns, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity
Exports - partners: South Africa 30.9%, Belgium 12.8%, China 9%, Italy 7.8%, Spain 6.2%, India 5.6% (2012)
Imports: $6.167 billion (2012 est.) $5.368 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners: South Africa 30.7%, China 12.2%, India 11.4%, US 5.1%, Portugal 4.8%, Australia 4.4% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $2.77 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $2.469 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $4.562 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $4.097 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: meticais (MZM) per US dollar - 28.383 (2012 est.) 29.075 (2011 est.) 33.96 (2010 est.) 26.28 (2009) 24.125 (2008)
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Electricity - production: 14.83 billion kWh (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 83
Electricity - consumption: 10.19 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity - exports: 9.462 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity - imports: 8.537 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 2.28 million kW (2012 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 0.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 99.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 19,580 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 13,200 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 3.12 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 80 million cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 3.04 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 127.4 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 2.728 million Mt (2010 est.)
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Telephones in use: 88,100 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 147
Cellular Phones in use: 7.855 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: a fair telecommunications system that is shackled with a heavy state presence, lack of competition, and high operating costs and charges

domestic: stagnation in the fixed-line network contrasts with rapid growth in the mobile-cellular network; mobile-cellular coverage now includes all the main cities and key roads, including those from Maputo to the South African and Swaziland borders, the national highway through Gaza and Inhambane provinces, the Beira corridor, and from Nampula to Nacala; extremely low fixed-line teledensity; despite significant growth in mobile-cellular services, teledensity remains low at about 35 per 100 persons

international: country code - 258; landing point for the EASSy and SEACOM fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean) (2011)
Broadcast media: 1 state-run TV station supplemented by private TV station; Portuguese state TV's African service, RTP Africa, and Brazilian-owned TV Miramar are available; state-run radio provides nearly 100% territorial coverage and broadcasts in multiple languages; a number of privately owned and community-operated stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
Internet country code: .mz
Internet hosts: 89,737 (2012)
Internet users: 613,600 (2009)
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Airports: 98 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 57
Airports (paved runways): total 21
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 4 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 77

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 29
under 914 m: 38 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 972 km; refined products 278 km (2013)
Railways: total 4,787 km

narrow gauge: 4,787 km 1.067-m gauge (2008)
Roadways: total 30,331 km
paved: 6,303 km
unpaved: 24,028 km (2000)
Waterways: 460 km (Zambezi River navigable to Tete and along Cahora Bassa Lake) (2010)
Merchant marine: total 2

by type: cargo 2

foreign-owned: 2 (Belgium 2) (2010)
Ports and terminals: Beira, Maputo, Nacala
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Military branches: Mozambique Armed Defense Forces (Forcas Armadas de Defesa de Mocambique, FADM): Mozambique Army, Mozambique Navy (Marinha de Guerra de Mocambique, MGM), Mozambique Air Force (Forca Aerea de Mocambique, FAM) (2012)
Military service age and obligation: registration for military service is mandatory for all males and females at 18 years of age; 18-35 years of age for selective compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary service; 2-year service obligation; women may serve as officers or enlisted (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 4,613,367 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 2,677,473
females age 16-49: 2,941,073 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 274,602
female: 280,008 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 0.6% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration
Illicit drugs: southern African transit point for South Asian hashish and heroin, and South American cocaine probably destined for the European and South African markets; producer of cannabis (for local consumption) and methaqualone (for export to South Africa); corruption and poor regulatory capability make the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center
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