South Africa Population: 54,300,704


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Dutch traders landed at the southern tip of modern day South Africa in 1652 and established a stopover point on the spice route between the Netherlands and the Far East, founding the city of Cape Town. After the British seized the Cape of Good Hope area in 1806, many of the Dutch settlers (Afrikaners, called "Boers" (farmers) by the British) trekked north to found their own republics in lands taken from the indigenous black inhabitants. The discovery of diamonds (1867) and gold (1886) spurred wealth and immigration and intensified the subjugation of the native inhabitants. The Afrikaners resisted British encroachments but were defeated in the Second South African War (1899-1902); however, the British and the Afrikaners, ruled together beginning in 1910 under the Union of South Africa, which became a republic in 1961 after a whites-only referendum. In 1948, the Afrikaner-dominated National Party was voted into power and instituted a policy of apartheid - the separate development of the races - which favored the white minority at the expense of the black majority. The African National Congress (ANC) led the opposition to apartheid and many top ANC leaders, such as Nelson MANDELA, spent decades in South Africa's prisons. Internal protests and insurgency, as well as boycotts by some Western nations and institutions, led to the regime's eventual willingness to negotiate a peaceful transition to majority rule. The first multi-racial elections in 1994 following the end of apartheid ushered in majority rule under an ANC-led government. South Africa has since struggled to address apartheid-era imbalances in decent housing, education, and health care. ANC infighting came to a head in 2008 when President Thabo MBEKI was recalled by Parliament, and Deputy President Kgalema MOTLANTHE, succeeded him as interim president. Jacob ZUMA became president after the ANC won general elections in 2009; he was reelected in 2014.

South Africa completely surrounds Lesotho and almost completely surrounds Swaziland
Location: Southern Africa, at the southern tip of the continent of Africa
Geographic coordinates: 29 00 S, 24 00 E
Area: total: 1,219,090 sq km
land: 1,214,470 sq km
water: 4,620 sq km

note: includes Prince Edward Islands (Marion Island and Prince Edward Island)

Size comparison: slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land Boundaries: total: 5,244 km border countries (6): Botswana 1,969 km, Lesotho 1,106 km, Mozambique 496 km, Namibia 1,005 km, Swaziland 438 km, Zimbabwe 230 km
Coastline: 2,798 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin
Climate: mostly semiarid; subtropical along east coast; sunny days, cool nights
Terrain: vast interior plateau rimmed by rugged hills and narrow coastal plain
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: gold, chromium, antimony, coal, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, tin, rare earth elements, uranium, gem diamonds, platinum, copper, vanadium, salt, natural gas
Land use: agricultural land: 79.4% arable land 9.9%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 69.2% forest: 7.6%
other: 13% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 16,700 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: prolonged droughts volcanism: the volcano forming Marion Island in the Prince Edward Islands, which last erupted in 2004, is South Africa's only active volcano
Current Environment Issues: lack of important arterial rivers or lakes requires extensive water conservation and control measures; growth in water usage outpacing supply; pollution of rivers from agricultural runoff and urban discharge; air pollution resulting in acid rain; soil erosion; desertification
International Environment Agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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Nationality: noun: South African(s)
adjective: South African
Ethnic groups: black African 80.2%, white 8.4%, colored 8.8%, Indian/Asian 2.5% note: colored is a term used in South Africa, including on the national census, for persons of mixed race ancestry (2014 est.)
Languages: IsiZulu (official) 22.7%, IsiXhosa (official) 16%, Afrikaans (official) 13.5%, English (official) 9.6%, Sepedi (official) 9.1%, Setswana (official) 8%, Sesotho (official) 7.6%, Xitsonga (official) 4.5%, siSwati (official) 2.5%, Tshivenda (official) 2.4%, isiNdebele (official) 2.1%, sign language 0.5%, other 1.6% (2011 est.)
Religions: Protestant 36.6% (Zionist Christian 11.1%, Pentecostal/Charismatic 8.2%, Methodist 6.8%, Dutch Reformed 6.7%, Anglican 3.8%), Catholic 7.1%, Muslim 1.5%, other Christian 36%, other 2.3%, unspecified 1.4%, none 15.1% (2001 census)
Population: 54,300,704 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 28.34% (male 7,718,511/female 7,667,830)
15-24 years: 18.07% (male 4,865,807/female 4,943,707)
25-54 years: 41.44% (male 11,372,944/female 11,130,874)
55-64 years: 6.59% (male 1,662,874/female 1,915,908)
65 years and over: 5.57% (male 1,269,551/female 1,752,698) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 52.1%
youth dependency ratio: 44.5%
elderly dependency ratio: 7.7%
potential support ratio: 13.1% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 26.8 years
male: 26.5 years
female: 27 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.99% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 20.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 64.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.59% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: Johannesburg (includes Ekurhuleni) 9.399 million; Cape Town (legislative capital) 3.66 million; Durban 2.901 million; PRETORIA (capital) 2.059 million; Port Elizabeth 1.179 million; Vereeniging 1.155 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 138 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 32 deaths/1,000 live births male: 35.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 28.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 63.1 years male: 61.6 years
female: 64.6 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.31 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Health expenditures: 8.8% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 0.78 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 99.6% of population
rural: 81.4% of population
total: 93.2% of population

urban: 0.4% of population
rural: 18.6% of population
total: 6.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 69.6% of population
rural: 60.5% of population
total: 66.4% of population

urban: 30.4% of population
rural: 39.5% of population
total: 33.6% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 19.2% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 6,984,600 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 182,400 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 25.6% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 8.7% (2008)
Education expenditures: 6.1% of GDP (2014)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.3%
male: 95.5%
female: 93.1% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 13 years male: 12 years
female: 14 years (2013)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 51.3% male: 48%
female: 55.3% (2014 est.)
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of South Africa
conventional short form: South Africa
former: Union of South Africa
abbreviation: RSA
etymology: self-descriptive name from the country's location on the continent; "Africa" is derived from the Roman designation of the area corresponding to present-day Tunisia "Africa terra," which meant "Land of the Afri" (the tribe resident in that area), but which eventually came to mean the entire continent
Government type: parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Pretoria (administrative capital); Cape Town (legislative capital); Bloemfontein (judicial capital)
geographic coordinates: 25 42 S, 28 13 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, Northern Cape, North West, Western Cape
Independence: 31 May 1910 (Union of South Africa formed from four British colonies: Cape Colony, Natal, Transvaal, and Orange Free State); 31 May 1961 (republic declared); 27 April 1994 (majority rule)
National holiday: Freedom Day, 27 April (1994)
Constitution: several previous; latest drafted 8 May 1996, approved 4 December 1996, effective 4 February 1997; amended many times, last in 2013 (2016)
Legal system: mixed legal system of Roman-Dutch civil law, English common law, and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Jacob ZUMA (since 9 May 2009); Deputy President Matamela Cyril RAMAPHOSA (since 26 May 2014) note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Jacob ZUMA (since 9 May 2009); Deputy President Matamela Cyril RAMAPHOSA (since 26 May 2014)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 May 2014 (next to be held in May 2019)

election results: Jacob ZUMA (ANC) reelected president by the National Assembly unopposed
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Parliament consists of the National Council of Provinces (90 seats; 10-member delegations appointed by each of the 9 provincial legislatures to serve 5-year terms; note - this council has special powers to protect regional interests, including safeguarding cultural and linguistic traditions among ethnic minorities) and the National Assembly (400 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: National Assembly and National Council of Provinces - last held on 7 May 2014 (next to be held in 2019)

election results: National Council of Provinces - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ANC 60, DA 20, EFF 7, IFP 1, NFP 1, UDM 1; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - ANC 62.2%, DA 22.2%, EFF 6.4%, IFP 2.4%, NFP 1.6%, UDM 1.0%, other 4.2%; seats by party - ANC 249, DA 89, EFF 25, IFP 10, NFP 6, UDM 4, other 17
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court of Appeals (consists of the court president, deputy president, and 21 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the chief and deputy chief justices and 9 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court of Appeals president and vice-president appointed by the national president after consultation with the Judicial Services Commission (JSC), a 23-member body chaired by the chief justice and includes other judges and judicial executives, members of parliament, practicing lawyers and advocates, a teacher of law, and several members designated by the national president; other Supreme Court judges appointed by the national president on the advice of the JSC and hold office until discharged from active service by terms of an Act of Parliament; Constitutional Court chief and deputy chief justices appointed by the national president after consultation with the JSC and with heads of the National Assembly; other Constitutional Court judges appointed by the national president after consultation with the chief justice and leaders of the National Assembly; Constitutional Court judges appointed for 12-year non-renewable terms or until age 70

subordinate courts: High Courts; Magistrates' Courts; labor courts; land claims courts
Political parties and leaders: African Christian Democratic Party or ACDP [Kenneth MESHOE] African Independent Congress or AIC [Mandla GALD] African National Congress or ANC [Jacob ZUMA] African People's Convention or APC [Themba GODI] Agamg SA [Mike Tshishonga, acting] Congress of the People or COPE [Mosiuoa LEKOTA] Democratic Alliance or DA [Mmusi MAIMANE] Economic Freedom Fighters or EFF [Julius MALEMA] Freedom Front Plus or FF+ [Pieter MULDER] Inkatha Freedom Party or IFP [Mangosuthu BUTHELEZI] National Freedom Party or NFP [Zanele kaMAGWAZA-MSIBI] Pan-Africanist Congress of Azania or PAC [Luthanado MBINDA] United Christian Democratic Party or UCDP [Isaac Sipho MFUNDISI] United Democratic Movement or UDM [Bantu HOLOMISA]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Congress of South African Trade Unions or COSATU [Zwelinzima VAVI, general secretary] South African Communist Party or SACP [Blade NZIMANDE, general secretary] South African National Civic Organization or SANCO [Richard MDAKANE, national president] note: COSATU and SACP are in a formal alliance with the African National Congress
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, BIS, BRICS, C, CD, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, NSG, OECD (Enhanced Engagement, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SACU, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National symbol(s): springbok (antelope), king protea flower; national colors: red, green, blue, yellow, black, white
National anthem: name: "National Anthem of South Africa"
lyrics/music: Enoch SONTONGA and Cornelius Jacob LANGENHOVEN/Enoch SONTONGA and Marthinus LOURENS de Villiers

note: adopted 1994; a combination of "N'kosi Sikelel' iAfrica" (God Bless Africa) and "Die Stem van Suid Afrika" (The Call of South Africa), which were respectively the anthems of the non-white and white communities under apartheid; official lyrics contain a mixture of Xhosa, Zulu, Sesotho, Afrikaans, and English (i.e., the five most widely spoken of South Africa's 11 official languages); music incorporates the melody used in the Tanzanian and Zambian anthems
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mninwa Johnnes MAHLANGU (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 3051 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 232-4400 [1] (202) 232-4400
FAX: [1] (202) 265-1607
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Patrick Hubert GASPARD (since 16 October 2013)
embassy: 877 Pretorius Street, Arcadia, Pretoria
mailing address: P.O. Box 9536, Pretoria 0001
telephone: [27] (12) 431-4000
FAX: [27] (12) 342-2299
consulate(s) general: Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg
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South Africa is a middle-income emerging market with an abundant supply of natural resources; well-developed financial, legal, communications, energy, and transport sectors; and a stock exchange that is Africa’s largest and among the top 20 in the world. Economic growth has decelerated in recent years, slowing to just 1.5% in 2014. Unemployment, poverty, and inequality - among the highest in the world - remain a challenge. Official unemployment is roughly 25% of the workforce, and runs significantly higher among black youth. Even though the country's modern infrastructure supports a relatively efficient distribution of goods to major urban centers throughout the region, unstable electricity supplies retard growth. Eskom, the state-run power company, is building three new power stations and is installing new power demand management programs to improve power grid reliability. Load shedding and resulting rolling blackouts gripped many parts of South Africa in late 2014 and early 2015 because of electricity supply constraints due to technical problems at some generation units, unavoidable planned maintenance, and an accident at a power station in Mpumalanga province. The rolling blackouts were the worst the country faced since 2008. Construction delays at two additional plants, however, mean South Africa will continue to operate on a razor thin margin; economists judge that growth cannot exceed 3% until electrical supply problems are resolved. South Africa's economic policy has focused on controlling inflation; however, the country faces structural constraints that also limit economic growth, such as skills shortages, declining global competitiveness, and frequent work stoppages due to strike action. The current government faces growing pressure from urban constituencies to improve the delivery of basic services to low-income areas and to increase job growth.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $736.3 billion (2016 est.) $735.4 billion (2015 est.) $726.3 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $280.4 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 0.1% (2016 est.) 1.3% (2015 est.) 1.6% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $13,200 (2016 est.) $13,400 (2015 est.) $13,400 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 16.3% of GDP (2016 est.) 16.4% of GDP (2015 est.) 15.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 58%
government consumption: 19.9%
investment in fixed capital: 20.1%
investment in inventories: 0.5%
exports of goods and services: 34.9%
imports of goods and services: -33.4% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 58%
government consumption: 19.9%
investment in fixed capital: 20.1%
investment in inventories: 0.5%
exports of goods and services: 34.9%
imports of goods and services: -33.4% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; beef, poultry, mutton, wool, dairy products
Industries: mining (world's largest producer of platinum, gold, chromium), automobile assembly, metalworking, machinery, textiles, iron and steel, chemicals, fertilizer, foodstuffs, commercial ship repair
Industrial production growth rate: -1% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 21.7 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 4%
industry: 18%
services: 66% (2014 est.)
Unemployment rate: 26.8% (2016 est.) 25.4% (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line: 35.9% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.2%
highest 10%: 51.7% (2009 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 62.5 (2013 est.) 59.3 (1994)
Budget: revenues: $76.62 billion
expenditures: $86.45 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 27.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 43.3% of GDP (2016 est.) 44.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.5% (2016 est.) 4.5% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$9.382 billion (2016 est.) -$13.67 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $83.16 billion (2016 est.) $81.63 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: gold, diamonds, platinum, other metals and minerals, machinery and equipment
Exports - partners: China 11.3%, US 7.3%, Germany 6%, Namibia 5.2%, Botswana 5.2%, Japan 4.7%, UK 4.3%, India 4.2% (2015)
Imports: $85.03 billion (2016 est.) $84.33 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum products, scientific instruments, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: China 17.6%, Germany 11.2%, US 6.7%, Nigeria 5%, India 4.7%, Saudi Arabia 4.1% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $44.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $45.91 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $129.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $131.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $128.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $124.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $168.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $162.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $735.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $933.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $942.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: rand (ZAR) per US dollar - 15.7 (2016 est.) 12.7581 (2015 est.) 12.7581 (2014 est.) 10.8469 (2013 est.) 8.2 (2012 est.)
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Electricity - production: 235 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 212 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 14 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 11 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 46 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 90.4% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 4.4% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 4.5% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0.7% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Crude oil - production: 3,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 466,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 15 million bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 488,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 663,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 131,500 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 169,900 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 950 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 4.75 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 3.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 15.01 billion cu m (1 January 2012 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 482 million Mt (2013 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total: 85.197 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 159 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: the system is the best-developed and most modern in Africa

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 165 telephones per 100 persons; consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay links, fiber-optic cable, radiotelephone communication stations, and wireles

international: country code - 27; the SAT-3/WASC and SAFE fiber-optic submarine cable systems connect South Africa to Europe and Asia; the EASSy fiber-optic cable system connects with Europe and North America; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 (2015)
Broadcast media: the South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) operates 4 TV stations, 3 are free-to-air and 1 is pay TV;, a private station, is accessible to more than half the population; multiple subscription TV services provide a mix of local and internationa (2007)
Internet country code: .za
Internet users: total: 27.868 million percent of population: 51.9% (July 2015 est.)
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Airports: 566 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 144
over 3,047 m: 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 52
914 to 1,523 m: 65
under 914 m: 9 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 422

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 31
914 to 1,523 m: 258
under 914 m: 132 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: condensate 94 km; gas 1,293 km; oil 992 km; refined products 1,460 km (2013)
Railways: total 20,986 km
standard gauge: 80 km 1.435-m gauge (80 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 19,756 km 1.065-m gauge (8,271 km electrified) other: 1,150 km (passenger rail, gauge unspecified, 1,115.5 km electrified) (2014)
Roadways: total 747,014 km
paved: 158,952 km
unpaved: 588,062 km (2014)
Merchant marine: total 3

by type: petroleum tanker 3

registered in other countries: 19 (Australia 1, Isle of Man 2, Mexico 1, NZ 1, Seychelles 1, Singapore 13) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Cape Town, Durban, Port Elizabeth, Richards Bay, Saldanha Bay container port(s) (TEUs): Durban (2,712,975) LNG terminal(s) (import): Mossel Bay
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With the end of apartheid and the establishment of majority rule, former military, black homelands forces, and ex-opposition forces were integrated into the South African National Defense Force (SANDF)
Military branches: South African National Defense Force (SANDF): South African Army, South African Navy (SAN), South African Air Force (SAAF), South African Military Health Services (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; women are eligible to serve in noncombat roles; 2-year service obligation (2012)
Military expenditures: 1.2% of GDP (2014) 1% of GDP (2013) 1.16% of GDP (2012) 1.14% of GDP (2011) 1.16% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration; the governments of South Africa and Namibia have not signed or ratified the text of the 1994 Surveyor's General agreement placing the boundary in the middle of the Orange River
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 41,458 (Somalia); 32,582 (Democratic Republic of the Congo); 20,324 (Ethiopia); 6,566 (Republic of the Congo); 6,358 (Zimbabwe) (2015)
Illicit drugs: transshipment center for heroin, hashish, and cocaine, as well as a major cultivator of marijuana in its own right; cocaine and heroin consumption on the rise; world's largest market for illicit methaqualone, usually imported illegally from India through various east African countries, but increasingly producing its own synthetic drugs for domestic consumption; attractive venue for money launderers given the increasing level of organized criminal and narcotics activity in the region and the size of the South African economy
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