United Arab Emirates Population: 9,701,315

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 History
The Trucial States of the Persian Gulf coast granted the UK control of their defense and foreign affairs in 19th century treaties. In 1971, six of these states - Abu Dhabi, 'Ajman, Al Fujayrah, Ash Shariqah, Dubayy, and Umm al Qaywayn - merged to form the United Arab Emirates (UAE). They were joined in 1972 by Ra's al Khaymah. The UAE's per capita GDP is on par with those of leading West European nations. For more than three decades, oil and global finance drove the UAE's economy. In 2008-09, the confluence of falling oil prices, collapsing real estate prices, and the international banking crisis hit the UAE especially hard. The UAE did not experience the "Arab Spring" unrest seen elsewhere in the Middle East in 2010-11, partly because of the government's multi-year, $1.6-billion infrastructure investment plan for the poorer northern emirates, and its aggressive pursuit of advocates of political reform. The UAE in recent years has played a growing role in regional affairs. In addition to donating billions of dollars in economic aid to help stabilize Egypt, the UAE was one of the first countries to join the Defeat-ISIS coalition, and is a key partner in a Saudi-led military campaign in Yemen.

 Geography
    Strategic location along southern approaches to Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oil
Location: Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf, between Oman and Saudi Arabia
Geographic coordinates: 24 00 N, 54 00 E
Area: total: 83,600 sq km
land: 83,600 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than South Carolina; slightly smaller than Maine
Land Boundaries: total: 1,066 km border countries (2): Oman 609 km, Saudi Arabia 457 km
Coastline: 1,318 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate: desert; cooler in eastern mountains
Terrain: flat, barren coastal plain merging into rolling sand dunes of vast desert; mountains in east
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas
Land use: agricultural land: 4.6% (2011 est.) arable land: 0.5% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 0.5% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 3.6% (2011 est.) forest: 3.8% (2011 est.)
other: 91.6% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 923 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: frequent sand and dust storms
Current Environment Issues: air pollution; rapid population growth and high energy demand contribute to water scarcity; lack of natural freshwater resources compensated by desalination plants; land degradation and desertification; waste generation, beach pollution from oil spills
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
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 People
Nationality: noun: Emirati(s)
adjective: Emirati
Ethnic groups: Emirati 11.6%, South Asian 59.4% (includes Indian 38.2%, Bangladeshi 9.5%, Pakistani 9.4%, other 2.3%), Egyptian 10.2%, Filipino 6.1%, other 12.8% (2015 est.)
Languages: Arabic (official), English, Hindi, Malayam, Urdu, Pashto, Tagalog, Persian
Religions: Muslim (official) 76%, Christian 9%, other (primarily Hindu and Buddhist, less than 5% of the population consists of Parsi, Baha'i, Druze, Sikh, Ahmadi, Ismaili, Dawoodi Bohra Muslim, and Jewish) 15% (2005 est.)

note: data represent the total population; about 85% of the population consists of noncitizens
Population: 9,701,315 (July 2017 est.) (July 2018 est.) note: the UN estimated the country's total population was 9,400,145 as of mid-year 2017; immigrants make up more than 88% of the total population, according to UN data (2017)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 14.39% (male 724,904 /female 671,524)
15-24 years: 7.64% (male 408,376 /female 332,986)
25-54 years: 70.45% (male 5,297,201 /female 1,537,300)
55-64 years: 6.05% (male 499,579 /female 87,037)
65 years and over: 1.47% (male 106,739 /female 35,669) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 17.4 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 16.2 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 1.2 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 83.4 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 37.2 years
male: 39 years
female: 31.1 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.44% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 9.8 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 1.7 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: 6.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 86.5% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 1.71% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 2.785 million Dubai
1.571 million Sharjah
1.42 million ABU DHABI (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.23 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 3.45 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 5.74 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 2.99 male(s)/female
total population: 2.64 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 6 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 5.5 deaths/1,000 live births male: 6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.7 years male: 77.3 years
female: 80.1 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.73 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Physicians density: 2.39 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density: 1.2 beds/1,000 population (2013)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 99.6% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 99.6% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0.4% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0.4% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 98% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 95.2% of population (2015 est.)
total: 97.6% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 2% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 4.8% of population (2015 est.)
total: 2.4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: n/a
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: n/a
HIV/AIDS - deaths: n/a
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 31.7% (2016)
Education expenditures: n/a
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
total population: 93.8%
male: 93.1%
female: 95.8% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 14 years male: 13 years female: 14 years (2016)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 7.7% male: 6% female: 13.5% (2017 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: United Arab Emirates
conventional short form: none
local long form: Al Imarat al Arabiyah al Muttahidah
local short form: none
former: Trucial Oman, Trucial States
abbreviation: UAE
etymology: self-descriptive country name; the name "Arabia" can be traced back many centuries B.C., the ancient Egyptians referred to the region as "Ar Rabi"; "emirates" derives from "amir" the Arabic word for "commander," "lord," or "prince"
Government type: federation of monarchies
Capital: name: Abu Dhabi
geographic coordinates: 24 28 N, 54 22 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 7 emirates (imarat, singular - imarah); Abu Zaby (Abu Dhabi), 'Ajman, Al Fujayrah, Ash Shariqah (Sharjah), Dubayy (Dubai), Ra's al Khaymah, Umm al Qaywayn
Independence: 2 December 1971 (from the UK)
National holiday: Independence Day (National Day), 2 December (1971)
Constitution: history: previous 1971 (provisional); latest drafted in 1979, became permanent May 1996 amendments: proposed by the Supreme Council and submitted to the Federal National Council; passage requires at least a two-thirds majority vote of Federal National Council members present, and approval by the Supreme Council president; amended 2009 (2016)
Legal system: mixed legal system of Islamic law and civil law
Suffrage: limited; note - rulers of the seven emirates each select a proportion of voters for the Federal National Council (FNC) that together account for about 12 percent of Emirati citizens
Executive branch: chief of state: President KHALIFA bin Zayid Al-Nuhayyan (since 2 November 2004), ruler of Abu Zaby (Abu Dhabi) (since 4 November 2004); Vice President and Prime Minister MUHAMMAD BIN RASHID Al-Maktum (since 5 January 2006)

head of government: Prime Minister Vice President MUHAMMAD BIN RASHID Al-Maktum (since 5 January 2006); Deputy Prime Ministers SAIF bin Zayid Al-Nuhayyan, MANSUR bin Zayid Al-Nuhayyan (both since 11 May 2009)

cabinet: Council of Ministers announced by the prime minister and approved by the president elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected by the Federal Supreme Council - composed of the rulers of the 7 emirates - for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held 3 November 2009 (next election NA); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president

election results: KHALIFA bin Zayid Al-Nuhayyan reelected president; FSC vote NA

note: there is also a Federal Supreme Council (FSC) composed of the 7 emirate rulers; the FSC is the highest constitutional authority in the UAE; establishes general policies and sanctions federal legislation; meets 4 times a year; Abu Zaby (Abu Dhabi) and Dubayy (Dubai) rulers have effective veto power
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Federal National Council (FNC) or Majlis al-Ittihad al-Watani (40 seats; 20 members indirectly elected by an electoral college whose members are selected by each emirate ruler proportional to its FNC membership, and 20 members appointed by the rulers of the 7 constituent states; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 3 October 2015 (next to be held in 2019); note - the electoral college was expanded from 129,274 electors in the December 2011 election to 224,279 in the October 2015 election; 347 candidates including 78 women ran for 20 contested seats in the 40-member FNC

election results: 19 men and 1 woman were elected; seats by emirate - Abu Dhabi 4, Dubai 4, Sharjah 3, Ras al-Khaimah 3, Ajman 2, Fujairah 2, Umm al-Quwain 2; note - only 1 woman (from Ras Al Khaimah) won an FNC seat
Judicial branch: highest courts: Federal Supreme Court (consists of the court president and 4 judges; jurisdiction limited to federal cases) judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the federal president following approval by the Federal Supreme Council, the highest executive and legislative authority consisting of the 7 emirate rulers; judges serve until retirement age or the expiry of their appointment terms

subordinate courts: Federal Court of Cassation (determines the constitutionality of laws promulgated at the federal and emirate level; federal level courts of first instance and appeals courts); the emirates of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, and Ra's al Khaymah have parallel court systems; the other 4 emirates have incorporated their courts into the federal system; note - the Abu Dhabi Global Market Courts and the Dubai International Financial Center Courts, the country’s two largest financial free zones, both adjudicate civil and commercial disputes.
Political parties and leaders: none; political parties are banned
International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB (nonregional member), AFESD, AMF, BIS, CAEU, CICA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OIF (observer), OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): golden falcon;
national colors: green, white, black, red
National anthem: name: "Nashid al-watani al-imarati" (National Anthem of the UAE)
lyrics/music: AREF Al Sheikh Abdullah Al Hassan/Mohamad Abdel WAHAB

note: music adopted 1971, lyrics adopted 1996; Mohamad Abdel WAHAB also composed the music for the anthem of Tunisia
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Yusif bin Mani bin Said al-UTAYBA (since 28 July 2008)
chancery: 3522 International Court NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 243-2400
FAX: [1] (202) 243-2432
consulate(s) general: Boston, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Steven C. BONDY (since 22 March 2018)
embassy: Embassies District, Plot 38 Sector W59-02, Street No. 4, P. O. Box 4009, Abu Dhabi
mailing address: P. O. Box 4009, Abu Dhabi
telephone: [971] (2) 414-2200
FAX: [971] (2) 414-2603
consulate(s) general: Dubai
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 Economy
The UAE has an open economy with a high per capita income and a sizable annual trade surplus. Successful efforts at economic diversification have reduced the portion of GDP from the oil and gas sector to 30%. Since the discovery of oil in the UAE nearly 60 years ago, the country has undergone a profound transformation from an impoverished region of small desert principalities to a modern state with a high standard of living. The government has increased spending on job creation and infrastructure expansion and is opening up utilities to greater private sector involvement. The country's free trade zones - offering 100% foreign ownership and zero taxes - are helping to attract foreign investors. The global financial crisis of 2008-09, tight international credit, and deflated asset prices constricted the economy in 2009. UAE authorities tried to blunt the crisis by increasing spending and boosting liquidity in the banking sector. The crisis hit Dubai hardest, as it was heavily exposed to depressed real estate prices. Dubai lacked sufficient cash to meet its debt obligations, prompting global concern about its solvency and ultimately a $20 billion bailout from the UAE Central Bank and Abu Dhabi Government that was refinanced in March 2014. The UAE’s dependence on oil is a significant long-term challenge, although the UAE is one of the most diversified countries in the Gulf Cooperation Council. Low oil prices have prompted the UAE to cut expenditures, including on some social programs, but the UAE has sufficient assets in its sovereign investment funds to cover its deficits. The government reduced fuel subsidies in August 2015, and introduced excise taxes (50% on sweetened carbonated beverages and 100% on energy drinks and tobacco) in October 2017. A five-percent value-added tax was introduced in January 2018. The UAE's strategic plan for the next few years focuses on economic diversification, promoting the UAE as a global trade and tourism hub, developing industry, and creating more job opportunities for nationals through improved education and increased private sector employment.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $696 billion (2017 est.) $690.5 billion (2016 est.) $670.5 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $382.6 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 0.8% (2017 est.) 3% (2016 est.) 5.1% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $68,600 (2017 est.) $70,100 (2016 est.) $70,000 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 28.5% of GDP (2017 est.) 30.9% of GDP (2016 est.) 30.7% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 34.9% (2017 est.) government consumption: 12.3% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 23% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 1.8% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 100.4% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -72.4% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 0.9% (2017 est.) industry: 49.8% (2017 est.) services: 49.2% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: dates, vegetables, watermelons; poultry, eggs, dairy products; fish
Industries: petroleum and petrochemicals; fishing, aluminum, cement, fertilizer, commercial ship repair, construction materials, handicrafts, textiles
Industrial production growth rate: 1.8% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 5.344 million (2017 est.) note: expatriates account for about 85% of the workforce
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 7%
industry: 15%
services: 78% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate: 1.6% (2016 est.) 3.6% (2014 est.)
Population below poverty line: 19.5% (2003 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: n/a
highest 10%: n/a
Budget: revenues: 110.2 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 111.1 billion (2017 est.)

note: the UAE federal budget does not account for emirate-level spending in Abu Dhabi and Dubai
Taxes and other revenues: 28.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -0.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 19.7% of GDP (2017 est.) 20.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (2017 est.) 1.6% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: $26.47 billion (2017 est.) $13.23 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $308.5 billion (2017 est.) $298.6 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: crude oil 45%, natural gas, reexports, dried fish, dates (2012 est.)
Exports - partners: India 10.1%, Iran 9.9%, Japan 9.3%, China 5.4%, Oman 5%, Switzerland 4.4%, South Korea 4.1% (2017)
Imports: $229.2 billion (2017 est.) $226.5 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food
Imports - partners: China 8.5%, US 6.8%, India 6.6% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $95.37 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $85.39 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $237.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $218.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $129.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $134.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $124.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $114.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $195.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $201.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $180.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: Emirati dirhams (AED) per US dollar - 3.673 (2017 est.) 3.673 (2016 est.) 3.673 (2015 est.) 3.673 (2014 est.) 3.673 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 121.8 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 113.2 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 1.141 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 28.91 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 99% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 1% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 3.174 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 2.552 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 97.8 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 943,500 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 896,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 817,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 392,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 62.01 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 74.48 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 7.504 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 20.22 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 6.091 trillion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 289.4 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 19,826,224
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 326 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly growing use of mobile-cellular telephones; key centers are Abu Dhabi and Dubai; 5G technology developing; two operators are competitive, but majority owned by the government; HSPA (high speed packet access) + LTE networks cover most of the population; low cost smart phones readily available; well-established fibre-broadband network provides future growth (2018)

domestic: microwave radio relay, fiber-optic and coaxial cable; fixed-line 38 per 100 and mobile-cellular 326 per 100 (2018)

international: country code - 971; linked to the international submarine cable FLAG (Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe); landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian)
Broadcast media: except for the many organizations now operating in media free zones in Abu Dhabi and Dubai, most TV and radio stations remain government-owned; widespread use of satellite dishes provides access to pan-Arab and other international broadcasts; restrictions since June 2017 on some satellite channels and websites originating from or otherwise linked to Qatar (2018)
Internet country code: .ae
Internet users: total: 5,370,299
percent of population: 90.6% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 43 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 25
(2013) over 3,047 m: 12 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 18
(2013) over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2013)
under 914 m: 6 (2013)
Heliports: 5 (2013)
Pipelines: 533 km condensate, 3277 km gas, 300 km liquid petroleum gas, 3287 km oil, 24 km oil/gas/water, 218 km refined products, 99 km water (2013)
Roadways: total 4,080 km
(2008) paved: 4,080 km (includes 253 km of expressways) (2008)
Merchant marine: total 616

by type: container ship 2, general cargo 103, oil tanker 22, other 489 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Al Fujayrah, Mina' Jabal 'Ali (Dubai), Khor Fakkan (Khawr Fakkan) (Sharjah), Mubarraz Island (Abu Dhabi), Mina' Rashid (Dubai), Mina' Saqr (Ra's al Khaymah) container port(s) (TEUs): Dubai Port (15,368,000), Khor Fakkan (Khawr Fakkan) (Sharjah) (2,321,000) (2017) LNG terminal(s) (export): Das Island
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 Military
Military branches: United Arab Emirates Armed Forces: Critical Infrastructure Coastal Patrol Agency (CICPA), Land Forces, Navy, Air Force and Air Defense, Presidential Guard, Joint Aviation Command (2018)
Military service age and obligation: 18-30 years of age for compulsory military service for men, optional service for women; 17 years of age for male volunteers with parental approval; 2-year general obligation, 12 months for secondary school graduates; women may train for 9 months regardless of education (2016)
Military expenditures: 4.86% of GDP (2017) 4.99% of GDP (2016) 5.66% of GDP (2014) 6.06% of GDP (2013)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: boundary agreement was signed and ratified with Oman in 2003 for entire border, including Oman's Musandam Peninsula and Al Madhah enclaves, but contents of the agreement and detailed maps showing the alignment have not been published; Iran and UAE dispute Tunb Islands and Abu Musa Island, which Iran occupies
Illicit drugs: the UAE is a drug transshipment point for traffickers given its proximity to Southwest Asian drug-producing countries; the UAE's position as a major financial center makes it vulnerable to money laundering; anti-money-laundering controls improving, but informal banking remains unregulated
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