Argentina Population: 44,694,198

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 History
In 1816, the United Provinces of the Rio Plata declared their independence from Spain. After Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay went their separate ways, the area that remained became Argentina. The country's population and culture were heavily shaped by immigrants from throughout Europe, with Italy and Spain providing the largest percentage of newcomers from 1860 to 1930. Up until about the mid-20th century, much of Argentina's history was dominated by periods of internal political unrest and conflict between civilian and military factions. After World War II, an era of Peronist populism and direct and indirect military interference in subsequent governments was followed by a military junta that took power in 1976. Democracy returned in 1983 after a failed bid to seize the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) by force, and has persisted despite numerous challenges, the most formidable of which was a severe economic crisis in 2001-02 that led to violent public protests and the successive resignations of several presidents. The years 2003-15 saw Peronist rule by Nestor and Cristina FERNANDEZ de KIRCHNER, whose policies isolated Argentina and caused economic stagnation. With the election of Mauricio MACRI in November 2015, Argentina began a period of reform and international reintegration.

 Geography
    Second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic location relative to sea lanes between the South Atlantic and the South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); diverse geophysical landscapes range from tropical climates in the north to tundra in the far south; Cerro Aconcagua is the Western Hemisphere's tallest mountain, while Laguna del Carbon is the lowest point in the Western Hemisphere; shares Iguazu Falls, the world's largest waterfalls system, with Brazil
Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Chile and Uruguay
Geographic coordinates: 34 00 S, 64 00 W
Area: total: 2,780,400 sq km
land: 2,736,690 sq km
water: 43,710 sq km

Size comparison: slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US
Land Boundaries: total: 11,968 km border countries (5): Bolivia 942 km, Brazil 1263 km, Chile 6691 km, Paraguay 2531 km, Uruguay 541 km
Coastline: 4,989 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate: mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest
Terrain: rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border
Natural resources: fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium, arable land
Land use: agricultural land: 53.9% (2016 est.) arable land: 13.9% (2016 est.)
permanent crops: 0.4% (2016 est.) permanent pasture: 39.6% (2016 est.) forest: 10.7% (2016 est.)
other: 35.4% (2016 est.)
Irrigated land: 23,600 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the pampas and northeast; heavy flooding in some areas volcanism: volcanic activity in the Andes Mountains along the Chilean border; Copahue (2,997 m) last erupted in 2000; other historically active volcanoes include Llullaillaco, Maipo, Planchon-Peteroa, San Jose, Tromen, Tupungatito, and Viedma
Current Environment Issues: environmental problems (urban and rural) typical of an industrializing economy such as deforestation, soil degradation (erosion, salinization), desertification, air pollution, and water pollution note: Argentina is a world leader in setting voluntary greenhouse gas targets
International Environment Agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
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 People
Nationality: noun: Argentine(s)
adjective: Argentine
Ethnic groups: European (mostly Spanish and Italian descent) and mestizo (mixed European and Amerindian ancestry) 97.2%, Amerindian 2.4%, African 0.4% (2010 est.)
Languages: Spanish (official), Italian, English, German, French, indigenous (Mapudungun, Quechua)
Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%
Population: 44,694,198 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 24.44% (male 5,629,345 /female 5,293,680)
15-24 years: 15.2% (male 3,476,344 /female 3,317,151)
25-54 years: 39.46% (male 8,808,591 /female 8,826,379)
55-64 years: 9.12% (male 1,977,421 /female 2,096,665)
65 years and over: 11.79% (male 2,216,487 /female 3,052,135) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 56.5 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 39.4 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 17.1 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 5.8 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 31.9 years
male: 30.7 years
female: 33.1 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.89% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 16.5 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 7.5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 91.9% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 1.07% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 14.967 million BUENOS AIRES (capital)
1.548 million Cordoba
1.488 million Rosario
1.133 million Mendoza
956,000 San Miguel de Tucuman
864,000 La Plata (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 52 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 9.5 deaths/1,000 live births male: 10.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.5 years male: 74.4 years
female: 80.8 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.25 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 81.3% (2013)
Physicians density: 3.96 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density: 5 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 99% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 99.1% of population

unimproved:
urban: 1% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 96.2% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 98.3% of population (2015 est.)
total: 96.4% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 3.8% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 1.7% of population (2015 est.)
total: 3.6% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.4% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 120,000 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 2,000 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 28.3% (2016)
Education expenditures: 5.6% of GDP (2016)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2016 est.)
total population: 99.1%
male: 99.1%
female: 99.1% (2016 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 18 years male: 16 years female: 19 years (2016)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 22.6% male: 19.9% female: 26.9% (2017 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Argentine Republic
conventional short form: Argentina
local long form: Republica Argentina
local short form: Argentina
etymology: originally the area was referred to as Tierra Argentina, i.e., "Land beside the Silvery River" or "silvery land," which referred to the massive estuary in the east of the country, the Rio de la Plata (River of Silver); over time the name shortened to simply Argentina or "silvery"
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Buenos Aires
geographic coordinates: 34 36 S, 58 22 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: the name translates as "fair winds" in Spanish and derives from the original designation of the settlement that would become the present-day city, "Santa Maria del Buen Aire" (Saint Mary of the Fair Winds)
Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 autonomous city*; Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires*, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego - Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur (Tierra del Fuego - Antarctica and the South Atlantic Islands), Tucuman

note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica
Independence: 9 July 1816 (from Spain)
National holiday: Revolution Day (May Revolution Day), 25 May (1810)
Constitution: history: several previous; latest effective 11 May 1853 amendments: a declaration of proposed amendments requires two-thirds majority vote by both houses of the National Congress followed by approval by an ad hoc, multi-member constitutional convention; amended many times, last significantly in 1994 (2018)
Legal system: civil law system based on West European legal systems; note - in mid-2015, Argentina adopted a new civil code, replacing the old one in force since 1871
Suffrage: 18-70 years of age; universal and compulsory; 16-17 years of age - optional for national elections
Executive branch: chief of state: President Mauricio MACRI (since 10 December 2015); Vice President Gabriela MICHETTI (since 10 December 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Mauricio MACRI (since 10 December 2015); Vice President Gabriela MICHETTI (since 10 December 2015)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by qualified majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second consecutive term); election last held in 2 rounds on 25 October and 22 November 2015 (next to be held on 27 October 2019)

election results: Mauricio MACRI elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Daniel SCIOLI (PJ) 37.1%, Mauricio MACRI (PRO) 34.2%, Sergio MASSA (FR/PJ) 21.4%, other 7.3%; percent of vote in second round - Mauricio MACRI (PRO) 51.4%, Daniel SCIOLI (PJ) 48.6%
Legislative branch: description: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of: Senate (72 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 6-year terms with one-third of the membership elected every 2 years) Chamber of Deputies (257 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 2 years)

elections: Senate - last held on 22 October 2017 (next to be held in October 2019) Chamber of Deputies - last held on 22 October 2017 (next to be held in October 2019)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA; seats by bloc or party - Cambiemos 12, UC 6, PJ 4, FRC 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA; seats by bloc or party - Cambiemos 61, UC 28, PJ 18, FR 7, FCS 3, FRC 2, other 8 note - as of 1 May 2019, composition of the legislature is as follows: Senate - seats by bloc or party - Cambiemos 26, PJ 21, FPV-PJ 8, other 17; composition - men 42, women 30, percent of women 42%; Chamber of Deputies - seats by bloc or party - Cambiemos 108, FPV-PJ 66, Argentina Federal 33, Frente Renovador UNA 21, other 29; composition - men 164, women 93, percent of women 3%; note - total National Congress percent of women 37%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (consists of the court president, vice-president, and 5 justices) judge selection and term of office: justices nominated by the president and approved by the Senate; justices can serve until mandatory retirement at age 75; extensions beyond 75 require renomination by the president and approval by the Senate

subordinate courts: federal level appellate, district, and territorial courts; provincial level supreme, appellate, and first instance courts
Political parties and leaders: Argentina Federal [coalition led by Pablo KOSINER] Cambiemos [Mauricio MACRI] (coalition of CC-ARI, PRO, and UCR) Citizen's Unity or UC [Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER] Civic Coalition ARI or CC-ARI [Elisa CARRIO, Maximiliano FERRARO] Civic Front for Santiago or FCS [Gerardo ZAMORA] Front for the Renewal of Concord or FRC Front for Victory or FpV [coalition led by Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER and Agustin ROSSI] Generation for a National Encounter or GEN [Monica PERALTA] Justicialist Party or PJ [Miguel Angel PICHETTO] Radical Civic Union or UCR [Alfredo CORNEJO] Renewal Front (Frente Renovador) or FR [Sergio MASSA] Republican Proposal or PRO [Mauricio MACRI, Humberto SCHIAVONI] Socialist Party or PS [Antonio BONFATTI] Socialist Workers’ Party or PTS) [Jose MONTES] Workers' Party or PO [Jorge ALTAMIRA] Worker’s Socialist Movement or MST [Alejandro BODDART; Vilma RIPOLL] numerous provincial parties
International organization participation: AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina (observer), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National symbol(s): Sun of May (a sun-with-face symbol);
national colors: sky blue, white
National anthem: name: "Himno Nacional Argentino" (Argentine National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Vicente LOPEZ y PLANES/Jose Blas PARERA

note: adopted 1813; Vicente LOPEZ was inspired to write the anthem after watching a play about the 1810 May Revolution against Spain
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Fernando ORIS DE ROA (since 24 January 2018)
chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 238-6400
FAX: [1] (202) 332-3171
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Edward Charles PRADO (since 16 May 2018)
embassy: Avenida Colombia 4300, C1425GMN Buenos Aires
mailing address: international mail: use embassy street address; APO address: US Embassy Buenos Aires, Unit 4334, APO AA 34034
telephone: [54] (11) 5777-4533
FAX: [54] (11) 5777-4240
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 Economy
Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base. Although one of the world's wealthiest countries 100 years ago, Argentina suffered during most of the 20th century from recurring economic crises, persistent fiscal and current account deficits, high inflation, mounting external debt, and capital flight. Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER succeeded her husband as president in late 2007, and in 2008 the rapid economic growth of previous years slowed sharply as government policies held back exports and the world economy fell into recession. In 2010 the economy rebounded strongly, but slowed in late 2011 even as the government continued to rely on expansionary fiscal and monetary policies, which kept inflation in the double digits. In order to deal with these problems, the government expanded state intervention in the economy: it nationalized the oil company YPF from Spain's Repsol, expanded measures to restrict imports, and further tightened currency controls in an effort to bolster foreign reserves and stem capital flight. Between 2011 and 2013, Central Bank foreign reserves dropped $21.3 billion from a high of $52.7 billion. In July 2014, Argentina and China agreed on an $11 billion currency swap; the Argentine Central Bank has received the equivalent of $3.2 billion in Chinese yuan, which it counts as international reserves. With the election of President Mauricio MACRI in November 2015, Argentina began a historic political and economic transformation, as his administration took steps to liberalize the Argentine economy, lifting capital controls, floating the peso, removing export controls on some commodities, cutting some energy subsidies, and reforming the country’s official statistics. Argentina negotiated debt payments with holdout bond creditors, continued working with the IMF to shore up its finances, and returned to international capital markets in April 2016. In 2017, Argentina’s economy emerged from recession with GDP growth of nearly 3.0%. The government passed important pension, tax, and fiscal reforms. And after years of international isolation, Argentina took on several international leadership roles, including hosting the World Economic Forum on Latin America and the World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference, and is set to assume the presidency of the G-20 in 2018.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $922.1 billion (2017 est.) $896.5 billion (2016 est.) $913.2 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $637.6 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2.9% (2017 est.) -1.8% (2016 est.) 2.7% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $20,900 (2017 est.) $20,600 (2016 est.) $21,200 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 17.6% of GDP (2017 est.) 16.8% of GDP (2016 est.) 15.8% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 65.9% (2017 est.) government consumption: 18.2% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 14.8% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 3.7% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 11.2% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -13.8% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 10.8% (2017 est.) industry: 28.1% (2017 est.) services: 61.1% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: sunflower seeds, lemons, soybeans, grapes, corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, wheat; livestock
Industries: food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel
Industrial production growth rate: 2.7% (2017 est.) note: based on private sector estimates
Labor force: 18 million (2017 est.) note: urban areas only
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 5.3%
industry: 28.6%
services: 66.1% (2017 est.)
Unemployment rate: 8.4% (2017 est.) 8.5% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: 25.7% (2017 est.)

note: data are based on private estimates
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 31% (2017 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 41.7 (2017 est.) 45.8 (2009)
Budget: revenues: 120.6 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 158.6 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 18.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 57.6% of GDP (2017 est.) 55% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 25.7% (2017 est.) 26.5% (2016 est.) note: data are derived from private estimates
Current account balance: -$31.32 billion (2017 est.) -$14.69 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $58.45 billion (2017 est.) $57.78 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: soybeans and derivatives, petroleum and gas, vehicles, corn, wheat
Exports - partners: Brazil 16.1%, US 7.9%, China 7.5%, Chile 4.4% (2017)
Imports: $63.97 billion (2017 est.) $53.5 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery, motor vehicles, petroleum and natural gas, organic chemicals, plastics
Imports - partners: Brazil 26.9%, China 18.5%, US 11.3%, Germany 4.9% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $55.33 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $38.43 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $214.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $190.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $76.58 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $72.11 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $40.94 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $39.74 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $56.13 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $60.14 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $53.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: Argentine pesos (ARS) per US dollar - 16.92 (2017 est.) 14.76 (2016 est.) 14.76 (2015 est.) 9.23 (2014 est.) 8.08 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 131.9 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 121 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 55 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports: 9.851 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 38.35 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 69% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 4% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 24% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 3% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 479,400 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 36,630 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 16,740 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 2.162 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 669,800 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 806,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 58,360 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 121,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 40.92 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 49.04 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 76.45 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 9.826 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 336.6 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 203.7 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 61,897,379
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 144 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: Argentina opened its telecommunications market to competition and foreign investment encouraging the growth of modern telecommunications technology in 1998; major networks are entirely digital and the availability of telephone service continues to improve to rural areas; even with numerous providers there is a lack of competition; still Argentina is the 3rd largest in the region after Brazil and Mexico (2018)

domestic: microwave radio relay, fiber-optic cable, and a domestic satellite system with 40 earth stations serve the trunk network; 22 per 100 fixed-line, 144 per 100 mobile-cellular (2018)

international: country code - 54; landing point for the UNISUR, Bicentenario, Atlantis-2, SAm-1, and SAC, Tannat, Malbec and ARBR submarine cable systems that provide links to Europe, Africa, South and Central America, and US; satellite earth stations - 112
Broadcast media: government owns a TV station and radio network; more than 2 dozen TV stations and hundreds of privately owned radio stations; high rate of cable TV subscription usage
Internet country code: .ar
Internet users: total: 30,786,889
percent of population: 70.2% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 1,138 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 161
(2017) over 3,047 m: 4 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 29 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 65 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 53 (2017)
under 914 m: 10 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 977
(2013) over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 43 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 484 (2013)
under 914 m: 448 (2013)
Heliports: 2 (2013)
Pipelines: 29930 km gas, 41 km liquid petroleum gas, 6248 km oil, 3631 km refined products (2013)
Railways: total 36,917 km
(2014) standard gauge: 2,745.1 km 1.435-m gauge (41.1 km electrified) (2014)
narrow gauge: 7,523.3 km 1.000-m gauge (2014) broad gauge: 26,391 km 1.676-m gauge (149 km electrified) (2014) 258 km 0.750-m gauge
Roadways: total 281,290 km
(2017) paved: 117,616 km (2017)
unpaved: 163,674 km (2017)
Waterways: 11,000 km (2012)
Merchant marine: total 167

by type: container ship 1, general cargo 9, oil tanker 27, other 130 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, La Plata, Punta Colorada, Ushuaia container port(s) (TEUs): Buenos Aires (1,851,701) LNG terminal(s) (import): Bahia Blanca
river port(s): Arroyo Seco, Rosario, San Lorenzo-San Martin (Parana)
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 Military
The Argentine military is a well-organized force constrained by the country's prolonged economic hardship; the military is implementing a modernization plan aimed at making the ground forces lighter and more responsive (2018)
Military branches: Argentine Army (Ejercito Argentino), Navy of the Argentine Republic (Armada Republica; includes naval aviation and naval infantry), Argentine Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Argentina, FAA) (2019)
Military service age and obligation: 18-24 years of age for voluntary military service (18-21 requires parental consent); no conscription; if the number of volunteers fails to meet the quota of recruits for a particular year, Congress can authorize the conscription of citizens turning 18 that year for a period not exceeding one year (2012)
Military expenditures: 0.95% of GDP (2016) 0.86% of GDP (2015) 0.88% of GDP (2014) 0.84% of GDP (2013) 0.78% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Argentina continues to assert its claims to the UK-administered Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), South Georgia, and the South Sandwich Islands in its constitution, forcibly occupying the Falklands in 1982, but in 1995 agreed to no longer seek settlement by force; UK continues to reject Argentine requests for sovereignty talks; territorial claim in Antarctica partially overlaps UK and Chilean claims; uncontested dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; in 2010, the ICJ ruled in favor of Uruguay's operation of two paper mills on the Uruguay River, which forms the border with Argentina; the two countries formed a joint pollution monitoring regime; the joint boundary commission, established by Chile and Argentina in 2001 has yet to map and demarcate the delimited boundary in the inhospitable Andean Southern Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur); contraband smuggling, human trafficking, and illegal narcotic trafficking are problems in the porous areas of the border with Bolivia
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 161,408 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum or have received alternative legal stay) (2019)
Illicit drugs: a transshipment country for cocaine headed for Europe, heroin headed for the US, and ephedrine and pseudoephedrine headed for Mexico; some money-laundering activity, especially in the Tri-Border Area; law enforcement corruption; a source for precursor chemicals; increasing domestic consumption of drugs in urban centers, especially cocaine base and synthetic drugs
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