Austria Population: 8,793,370

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 History
Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year declared the country's "perpetual neutrality" as a condition for Soviet military withdrawal. The Soviet Union's collapse in 1991 and Austria's entry into the EU in 1995 have altered the meaning of this neutrality. A prosperous, democratic country, Austria entered the EU Economic and Monetary Union in 1999.

 Geography
    Landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere

  • the world's largest and longest ice cave system at 42 km (26 mi) is the Eisriesenwelt (Ice Giants World) inside the Hochkogel mountain near Werfen, about 40 km south of Salzburg; ice caves are bedrock caves that contain year-round ice formations; they differ from glacial caves, which are transient and are formed by melting ice and flowing water within and under glaciers
Location: Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia
Geographic coordinates: 47 20 N, 13 20 E
Area: total: 83,871 sq km
land: 82,445 sq km
water: 1,426 sq km

Size comparison: about the size of South Carolina; slightly more than two-thirds the size of Pennsylvania
Land Boundaries: total: 2,524 km border countries (8): Czech Republic 402 km, Germany 801 km, Hungary 321 km, Italy 404 km, Liechtenstein 34 km, Slovakia 105 km, Slovenia 299 km, Switzerland 158 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with occasional showers
Terrain: mostly mountains (Alps) in the west and south; mostly flat or gently sloping along the eastern and northern margins
Natural resources: oil, coal, lignite, timber, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, magnesite, tungsten, graphite, salt, hydropower
Land use: agricultural land: 38.4% (2016 est.) arable land: 16.5% (2016 est.)
permanent crops: 0.8% (2016 est.) permanent pasture: 21.1% (2016 est.) forest: 47.2% (2016 est.)
other: 14.4% (2016 est.)
Irrigated land: 1,170 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: landslides; avalanches; earthquakes
Current Environment Issues: some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe; water pollution; the Danube, as well as some of Austria’s other rivers and lakes, are threatened by pollution
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Austrian(s)
adjective: Austrian
Ethnic groups: Austrian 80.8%, German 2.6%,  Bosnian and Herzegovinian 1.9%, Turkish 1.8%, Serbian 1.6%, Romanian 1.3%, other 10% (2018 est.) note: data represent population by country of birth
Languages: German (official nationwide) 88.6%, Turkish 2.3%, Serbian 2.2%, Croatian (official in Burgenland) 1.6%, other (includes Slovene, official in southern Carinthia, and Hungarian, official in Burgenland) 5.3% (2001 est.)
Religions: Catholic 73.8% (includes Roman Catholic 73.6%, other Catholic 0.2%), Protestant 4.9%, Muslim 4.2%, Orthodox 2.2%, other 0.8% (includes other Christian), none 12%, unspecified 2% (2001 est.)
Population: 8,793,370 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 14% (male 630,739 /female 600,663)
15-24 years: 10.82% (male 484,515 /female 467,064)
25-54 years: 42.1% (male 1,851,209 /female 1,851,100)
55-64 years: 13.63% (male 595,146 /female 603,249)
65 years and over: 19.44% (male 743,174 /female 966,511) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 49.2 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 21.1 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 28.1 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 3.6 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 44.2 years
male: 42.9 years
female: 45.4 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.42% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 9.5 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 9.7 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: 4.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 58.3% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 0.59% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 1.901 million VIENNA (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 29 years (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 4 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births male: 3.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 81.7 years male: 79 years
female: 84.5 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.48 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 65.7% (2012/13) note: percent of women aged 18-49
Physicians density: 5.14 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density: 7.6 beds/1,000 population (2013)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 100% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 100% of population (2015 est.)
total: 100% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 0% of population (2015 est.)
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 7,400 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: <100 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 20.1% (2016)
Education expenditures: 5.5% of GDP (2015)
Literacy:
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 16 years male: 16 years female: 16 years (2016)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 9.8% male: 10.8% female: 8.7% (2017 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Austria
conventional short form: Austria
local long form: Republik Oesterreich
local short form: Oesterreich
etymology: the name Oesterreich means "eastern realm" or "eastern march" and dates to the 10th century; the designation refers to the fact that Austria was the easternmost extension of Bavaria, and, in fact, of all the Germans; the word Austria is a Latinization of the German name
Government type: federal parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Vienna
geographic coordinates: 48 12 N, 16 22 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
etymology: the origin of the name is disputed but may derive from earlier settlements of the area; a Celtic town of Vedunia, established about 500 B.C., came under Roman dominance around 15 B.C. and became known as Vindobona; archeological remains of the latter survive at many sites in the center of Vienna
Administrative divisions: 9 states (Bundeslaender, singular - Bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten (Carinthia), Niederoesterreich (Lower Austria), Oberoesterreich (Upper Austria), Salzburg, Steiermark (Styria), Tirol (Tyrol), Vorarlberg, Wien (Vienna)
Independence: no official date of independence: 976 (Margravate of Austria established); 17 September 1156 (Duchy of Austria founded); 6 January 1453 (Archduchy of Austria acknowledged); 11 August 1804 (Austrian Empire proclaimed); 30 March 1867 (Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy established); 12 November 1918 (First Republic proclaimed); 27 April 1945 (Second Republic proclaimed)
National holiday: National Day (commemorates passage of the law on permanent neutrality), 26 October (1955)
Constitution: history: several previous; latest adopted 1 October 1920, revised 1929, replaced May 1934, replaced by German Weimar constitution in 1938 following German annexation, reinstated 1 May 1945 amendments: proposed through laws designated "constitutional laws" or through the constitutional process if the amendment is part of another law; approval required by at least a two-thirds majority vote by the National Assembly if one-half of the members are present; a referendum is required only if requested by one-third of the National Council or Federal Council membership; passage by referendum requires absolute majority vote; amended many times, last in 2018 (2019)
Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court
Suffrage: 16 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Alexander VAN DER BELLEN (since 26 January 2017)

head of government: Brigitte BIERLEIN since 30 May 2019; note -Chancellor Sebastian KURZ resigned on 18 May 2019; Chancellor BIERLEIN will hold office until elections in December; Clemens JABLONER is named vice chancellor by Chancellor BIERLEIN

cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held on 24 April 2016 (first round), 22 May 2016 (second round, which was annulled), and 4 December 2016 (second round re-vote) (next election to be held in April 2022); chancellor appointed by the president but determined by the majority coalition parties in the Federal Assembly; vice chancellor appointed by the president on the advice of the chancellor

election results: Alexander VAN DER BELLEN elected in second round; percent of vote in first round - Norbret HOFER (FPOe) 35.1%, Alexander VAN DER BELLEN (independent, allied with the Greens) 21.3%, Irmgard GRISS (independent) 18.9%, Rudolf HUNDSTORFER (SPOe) 11.3%, Andreas KHOL (OeVP) 11.1%, Richard LUGNER (independent) 2.3%; percent of vote in second round - Alexander VAN DER BELLEN 53.8%, Norbert HOFER 46.2%
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of: Federal Council or Bundesrat (61 seats; members appointed by state parliaments with each state receiving 3 to 12 seats in proportion to its population; members serve 5- or 6-year terms) National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: Federal Council - appointed National Council - last held on 15 October 2017 (next to be held in 2022)

election results: Federal Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 42, women 19, percent of women 31.1%  National Council - percent of vote by party - OeVP 31.5%, SPOe 26.9%, FPOe 26%, NEOS 5.3%, PILZ 4.4%, The Greens 3.8%, other 2.1%; seats by party - OeVP 62, SPOe 52, FPOe 51, NEOS 10, PILZ 8; composition - men 122, women 61, percent of women 33.3%; note - total Federal Assembly percent of women 32.8%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice or Oberster Gerichtshof (consists of 85 judges organized into 17 senates or panels of 5 judges each); Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgerichtshof (consists of 20 judges including 6 substitutes; Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof - 2 judges plus other members depending on the importance of the case) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by executive branch departments and appointed by the president; judges serve for life; Constitutional Court judges nominated by several executive branch departments and approved by the president; judges serve for life; Administrative Court judges recommended by executive branch departments and appointed by the president; terms of judges and members determined by the president

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (4); Regional Courts (20); district courts (120); county courts
Political parties and leaders: Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Sebastian KURZ] Communist Party of Austria or KPOe [Mirko MESSNER] Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Heinz-Christian STRACHE] The Greens [Werner KOGLER] NEOS - The New Austria [Beate MEINL-REISINGER] NOW-Pilz List (JETZT-Liste Pilz) or PILZ [Maria STERN] Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Pamela RENDI-WAGNER]
International organization participation: ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National symbol(s): eagle, edelweiss, Alpine gentian;
national colors: red, white
National anthem: name: "Bundeshymne" (Federal Hymn)
lyrics/music: Paula von PRERADOVIC/Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART or Johann HOLZER (disputed)

note: adopted 1947; the anthem is also known as "Land der Berge, Land am Strome" (Land of the Mountains, Land by the River); Austria adopted a new national anthem after World War II to replace the former imperial anthem composed by Franz Josef HAYDN, which had been appropriated by Germany in 1922 and was thereafter associated with the Nazi regime; a gendered version of the lyrics was adopted by the Austrian Federal Assembly in fall 2011 and became effective 1 January 2012
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Wolfgang WALDNER (since 28 January 2016)
chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700
FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York consulate(s): Chicago
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Trevor TRAINA (since 24 May 2018)
embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1090, Vienna
mailing address: Boltzmanngasse 16, 1090 Vienna, Austria
telephone: [43] (1) 31339-0
FAX: [43] (1) 3100682
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 Economy
Austria is a well-developed market economy with skilled labor force and high standard of living. It is closely tied to other EU economies, especially Germany's, but also the US’, its third-largest trade partner. Its economy features a large service sector, a sound industrial sector, and a small, but highly developed agricultural sector. Austrian economic growth strengthen in 2017, with a 2.9% increase in GDP. Austrian exports, accounting for around 60% of the GDP, were up 8.2% in 2017. Austria’s unemployment rate fell by 0.3% to 5.5%, which is low by European standards, but still at its second highest rate since the end of World War II, driven by an increased number of refugees and EU migrants entering the labor market. Austria's fiscal position compares favorably with other euro-zone countries. The budget deficit stood at a low 0.7% of GDP in 2017 and public debt declined again to 78.4% of GDP in 2017, after reaching a post-war high 84.6% in 2015. The Austrian government has announced it plans to balance the fiscal budget in 2019. Several external risks, such as Austrian banks' exposure to Central and Eastern Europe, the refugee crisis, and continued unrest in Russia/Ukraine, eased in 2017, but are still a factor for the Austrian economy. Exposure to the Russian banking sector and a deep energy relationship with Russia present additional risks. Austria elected a new pro-business government in October 2017 that campaigned on promises to reduce bureaucracy, improve public sector efficiency, reduce labor market protections, and provide positive investment incentives.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $441 billion (2017 est.) $428.1 billion (2016 est.) $422 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $417.4 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3% (2017 est.) 1.5% (2016 est.) 1.1% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $50,000 (2017 est.) $49,000 (2016 est.) $48,900 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 27% of GDP (2017 est.) 26.2% of GDP (2016 est.) 25.5% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 52.1% (2017 est.) government consumption: 19.5% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 23.5% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 1.6% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 54.2% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -50.7% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 1.3% (2017 est.) industry: 28.4% (2017 est.) services: 70.3% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: grains, potatoes, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle, pigs, poultry; lumber and other forestry products
Industries: construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, metals, chemicals, lumber and paper, electronics, tourism
Industrial production growth rate: 6.5% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 4.26 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 0.7%
industry: 25.2%
services: 74.1% (2017 est.)
Unemployment rate: 5.5% (2017 est.) 6% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: 3% (2017 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 23.5% (2012 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 30.5 (2015) 30.5 (2014)
Budget: revenues: 201.7 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 204.6 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 48.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -0.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 78.6% of GDP (2017 est.) 83.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: this is general government gross debt, defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year; it covers the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government and social security funds; as a percentage of GDP, the GDP used as a denominator is the gross domestic product in current year prices
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.2% (2017 est.) 1% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: $7.859 billion (2017 est.) $8.313 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $156.7 billion (2017 est.) $149.5 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, manufactured goods, chemicals, iron and steel, foodstuffs
Exports - partners: Germany 29.4%, US 6.3%, Italy 6.2%, Switzerland 5.1%, France 4.8%, Slovakia 4.8% (2017)
Imports: $158.1 billion (2017 est.) $142.3 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal goods, oil and oil products, natural gas; foodstuffs
Imports - partners: Germany 41.8%, Italy 5.8%, Switzerland 5.5%, Czech Republic 4.4%, Netherlands 4.2% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $21.57 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $23.36 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $630.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $679.3 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $294.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $158.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $339.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $214.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $96.08 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $96.79 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $117.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.885 (2017 est.) 0.903 (2016 est.) 0.9214 (2015 est.) 0.885 (2014 est.) 0.7634 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 60.78 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 64.6 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 19.21 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 26.37 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 24.79 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 25% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 43% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 31% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 14,260 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 146,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 41.2 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 186,500 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 268,000 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 49,960 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 135,500 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Natural gas - production: 1.274 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 9.486 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 5.437 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 14.02 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 6.513 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 63.93 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 14,924,340
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 170 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: mobile-cellular subscribership is everywhere; cable networks are very extensive, the fiber-optic net is being developed; all telephone applications and Internet services are accessible; broadband is available in all large municipalities, and is planned to be accessible nation-wide by 2020; the roll-out of 5G has begun in a test phase in 2019 and is planned to be available nation-wide in 2025 (2018)

domestic: developed and efficient; 46 per 100 fixed-line for households, 174 per 100 for companies; 181 per 100 mobile-cellular; Broadband: 138 per 100 on smartphones; 62 per 100 fixed broadband, 54 per 100 mobile broadband (2018)

international: country code - 43; earth stations available in the Astra, Intelsat, Eutelsat satellite systems
Broadcast media: worldwide cable and satellite TV are available; the public incumbent ORF competes with three other major, several regional domestic, and up to 400 international TV stations; TV coverage is in principle 100%, but only 90% use broadcast media; Internet streaming not only complements, but increasingly replaces regular TV stations (2019)
Internet country code: .at
Internet users: total: 7,346,055
percent of population: 84.3% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 52 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 24
(2017) over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2017)
under 914 m: 13 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 28
(2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
under 914 m: 24 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: 1888 km gas, 594 km oil, 157 km refined products (2017)
Railways: total 5,800 km
(2017) standard gauge: 5,300 km 1.435-m gauge (3,826 km electrified) (2016)
Roadways: total 137,039 km
(2018) paved: 137,039 km (includes 2,232 km of expressways) (2018)
Waterways: 358 km (2011)
Ports and terminals:
river port(s): Enns, Krems, Linz, Vienna (Danube)
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 Military
Military branches: Land Forces (KdoLdSK), Air Forces (KdoLuSK) (2014)
Military service age and obligation: registration requirement at age 17, the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; 18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory military service (6 months), or optionally, alternative civil/community service (9 months); males 18 to 50 years old in the militia or inactive reserve are subject to compulsory service; in a January 2012 referendum, a majority of Austrians voted in favor of retaining the system of compulsory military service (with the option of alternative/non-military service) instead of switching to a professional army system (2015)
Military expenditures: 0.58% of GDP (2018) 0.73% of GDP (2017) 0.75% of GDP (2016) 0.71% of GDP (2015) 0.75% of GDP (2014)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 49,179 (Syria), 33,103 (Afghanistan), 11,301 (Russia), 8,295 (Iraq), 5,772 (Iran) (2018)
stateless persons: 1,062 (2018)
Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; increasing consumption of European-produced synthetic drugs
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