Azerbaijan Population: 9,872,765


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Azerbaijan - a nation with a majority-Turkic and majority-Shia Muslim population - was briefly independent (from 1918 to 1920) following the collapse of the Russian Empire; it was subsequently incorporated into the Soviet Union for seven decades. Azerbaijan has yet to resolve its conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily ethnic Armenian-populated region that Moscow recognized in 1923 as an autonomous republic within Soviet Azerbaijan after Armenia and Azerbaijan disputed the territory's status. Armenia and Azerbaijan reignited their dispute over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated militarily after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, ethnic Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also seven surrounding provinces in the territory of Azerbaijan. The OSCE Minsk Group, co-chaired by the US, France, and Russia, is the framework established to mediate a peaceful resolution of the conflict. Corruption in the country is widespread, and the government, which eliminated presidential term limits in a 2009 referendum and approved extending presidential terms from 5 to 7 years in 2016, has been accused of authoritarianism. Although the poverty rate has been reduced and infrastructure investment has increased substantially in recent years due to revenue from oil and gas production, reforms have not adequately addressed weaknesses in most government institutions, particularly in the education and health sectors, as well as the court system.

Both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are landlocked
Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range
Geographic coordinates: 40 30 N, 47 30 E
Area: total: 86,600 sq km
land: 82,629 sq km
water: 3,971 sq km

note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Maine
Land Boundaries: total: 2,468 km border countries (5): Armenia 996 km, Georgia 428 km, Iran 689 km, Russia 338 km, Turkey 17 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (713 km)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: dry, semiarid steppe
Terrain: large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland, much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) to the west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, bauxite
Land use: agricultural land: 57.6% arable land 22.8%; permanent crops 2.7%; permanent pasture 32.1% forest: 11.3%
other: 31.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 14,277 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: droughts
Current Environment Issues: local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, soil, and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil spills, from the use of DDT pesticide, and from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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Nationality: noun: Azerbaijani(s)
adjective: Azerbaijani
Ethnic groups: Azerbaijani 91.6%, Lezghin 2%, Russian 1.3%, Armenian 1.3%, Talysh 1.3%, other 2.4% note: the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region is populated almost entirely by ethnic Armenians (2009 est.)
Languages: Azerbaijani (Azeri) (official) 92.5%, Russian 1.4%, Armenian 1.4%, other 4.7% (2009 est.)
Religions: Muslim 96.9% (predominantly Shia), Christian 3%, other

note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan; percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower
Population: 9,872,765 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 22.82% (male 1,204,976/female 1,047,737)
15-24 years: 15.77% (male 812,537/female 744,538)
25-54 years: 45.28% (male 2,188,683/female 2,281,242)
55-64 years: 9.64% (male 439,566/female 512,118)
65 years and over: 6.5% (male 245,144/female 396,224) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 38%
youth dependency ratio: 30.3%
elderly dependency ratio: 7.8%
potential support ratio: 12.9% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 30.9 years
male: 29.3 years
female: 32.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.92% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 16.2 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 54.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.56% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: BAKU (capital) 2.374 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.11 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.15 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 23.5 (2013 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 25 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 24.7 deaths/1,000 live births male: 25.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 23.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72.5 years male: 69.5 years
female: 75.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 51.1% (2006)
Health expenditures: 6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 3.4 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density: 4.7 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 94.7% of population
rural: 77.8% of population
total: 87% of population

urban: 5.3% of population
rural: 22.2% of population
total: 13% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 91.6% of population
rural: 86.6% of population
total: 89.3% of population

urban: 8.4% of population
rural: 13.4% of population
total: 10.7% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.17% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 10,700 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 300 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 22.2% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 4.9% (2013)
Education expenditures: 2.6% of GDP (2014)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.9%
female: 99.8% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 13 years male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 13.8% male: 12%
female: 15.6% (2013 est.)
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Azerbaijan
conventional short form: Azerbaijan
local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi
local short form: Azarbaycan
former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: the name translates as "Land of fire" and refers to naturally occurring surface fires on ancient oil pools or from natural gas discharges
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Baku (Baki, Baky)
geographic coordinates: 40 23 N, 49 52 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 66 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities (saharlar; sahar - singular); rayons: Abseron, Agcabadi, Agdam, Agdas, Agstafa, Agsu, Astara, Babak, Balakan, Barda, Beylaqan, Bilasuvar, Cabrayil, Calilabad, Culfa, Daskasan, Fuzuli, Gadabay, Goranboy, Goycay, Goygol, Haciqabul, Imisli, Ismayilli, Kalbacar, Kangarli, Kurdamir, Lacin, Lankaran, Lerik, Masalli, Neftcala, Oguz, Ordubad, Qabala, Qax, Qazax, Qobustan, Quba, Qubadli, Qusar, Saatli, Sabirabad, Sabran, Sadarak, Sahbuz, Saki, Salyan, Samaxi, Samkir, Samux, Sarur, Siyazan, Susa, Tartar, Tovuz, Ucar, Xacmaz, Xizi, Xocali, Xocavand, Yardimli, Yevlax, Zangilan, Zaqatala, Zardab cities: Baku, Ganca, Lankaran, Mingacevir, Naftalan, Naxcivan (Nakhichevan), Saki, Sirvan, Sumqayit, Xankandi, Yevlax
Independence: 30 August 1991 (declared from the Soviet Union); 18 October 1991 (adopted by the Supreme Council of Azerbaijan)
National holiday: Founding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan, 28 May (1918)
Constitution: several previous; latest adopted 12 November 1995; amended 2002, 2009 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 October 2003)

head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 4 November 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Yaqub EYYUBOV (since June 2006); note - RASIZADE was previously prime minister from 20 July 1996 to 4 August 2003

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for unlimited terms); election last held on 9 October 2013 (next to be held in October 2018); prime minister and first deputy prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly; note - a constitutional amendment approved in a September 2016 referendum will expand presidential terms from 5 to 7 years when it formally takes effect

election results: Ilham ALIYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Ilham ALIYEV (YAP) 84.5%, Jamil HASANLI (National Council of Democratic Forces) 5.5%, other 10%

note: OSCE observers concluded that the election did not meet international standards
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 1 November 2015 (next to be held in November 2020)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - YAP 72, CSP 2, Democratic Reforms 1, Social Democratic Party 1, Social Prosperity 1, Unity Party 1, Democratic Enlightenment 1, Whole Azerbaijan Popular Front 1, Motherland 1, Civil Unity 1, Great Undertaking Party 1, National Renaissance Party 1, independent 41
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, vice chairman, and 23 judges in plenum sessions and organized into civil, economic affairs, criminal, and rights violations chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Milli Majlis; judges appointed for 10 years; Constitutional Court chairman and deputy chairman appointed by the president; other court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Milli Majlis to serve single 15-year terms

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (replaced the Economic Court in 2002); district and municipal courts;
Political parties and leaders: Civil Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLI] Civil Unity Party or CUP [Sabir HAJIYEV] Democratic Enlightenment [Elshan MUSAYEV] Democratic Reforms Party [Asim MOLLAZADE] Great Undertaking [Fazil MUSTAFA] Musavat [Arif HAJILI] Popular Front Party [Ali KARIMLI] Motherland Party or AVP [Fazail AGAMALI] National Renaissance Party Social Democratic Party [Ayaz MUTALIBOV] Social Prosperity Party [Khanhusein KAZIMLI] Unity Party [Tahir KARIMLI] Whole Azerbaijan Popular Front Party [Gudrat HASANGULIYEV] Yeni (New) Azerbaijan Party or YAP [President Ilham ALIYEV]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Club-125 [Ilhamia RZAYEVA] Ireli Youth Movement [MirHasan SEYIDOV] National Council of Democratic Forces [Jamil HASANLI] N!DA Youth Movement [Turgut GAMBAR, Zaur GURBANLI] Positive Change Youth Movement [Bakhtiyar HAJIYEV] Republican Alternative or REAL [Ilgar MAMMADOV (in jail)]
International organization participation: ADB, BSEC, CD, CE, CICA, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (compliant country), FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
National symbol(s): flames of fire; national colors: blue, red, green
National anthem: name: "Azerbaijan Marsi" (March of Azerbaijan)
lyrics/music: Ahmed JAVAD/Uzeyir HAJIBEYOV

note: adopted 1992; although originally written in 1919 during a brief period of independence, "Azerbaijan Marsi" did not become the official anthem until after the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Elin SULEYMANOV (since 5 December 2011)
chancery: 2741 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 337-3500
FAX: [1] (202) 337-5911
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Robert CEKUTA (since 16 February 2015)
embassy: 111 Azadlig Prospekti, Baku AZ1007
mailing address: American Embassy Baku, US Department of State, 7050 Baku Place, Washington, DC 20521-7050
telephone: [994] (12) 488-3300
FAX: [994] (12) 488-3320
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Azerbaijan's high economic growth has been attributable to large and growing oil and gas exports, but some non-export sectors also featured double-digit growth, including construction, banking, and real estate. Oil exports through the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline, the Baku-Novorossiysk, and the Baku-Supsa pipelines remain the main economic driver, but efforts to boost Azerbaijan's gas production are underway. The eventual completion of the geopolitically important Southern Gas Corridor between Azerbaijan and Europe will open up another, albeit, smaller source of revenue from gas exports. Azerbaijan has made only limited progress on instituting market-based economic reforms. Pervasive public and private sector corruption and structural economic inefficiencies remain a drag on long-term growth, particularly in non-energy sectors. Several other obstacles impede Azerbaijan's economic progress, including the need for stepped up foreign investment in the non-energy sector and the continuing conflict with Armenia over the Nagorno-Karabakh region. Trade with Russia and the other former Soviet republics is declining in importance, while trade is building with Turkey and the nations of Europe. Long-term prospects depend on world oil prices, Azerbaijan's ability to negotiate export routes for its growing gas production, and its ability to use its energy wealth to promote growth and spur employment in non-energy sectors of the economy.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $167.9 billion (2016 est.) $172 billion (2015 est.) $170.1 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $35.69 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -2.4% (2016 est.) 1.1% (2015 est.) 2.8% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $17,700 (2016 est.) $18,300 (2015 est.) $18,200 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 30.5% of GDP (2016 est.) 26.1% of GDP (2015 est.) 36.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 56.2%
government consumption: 13.9%
investment in fixed capital: 27.3%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 47.5%
imports of goods and services: -44.9% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 56.2%
government consumption: 13.9%
investment in fixed capital: 27.3%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 47.5%
imports of goods and services: -44.9% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: fruit, vegetables, grain, rice, grapes, tea, cotton, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats
Industries: petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore; cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles
Industrial production growth rate: 0.3% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 4.961 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 38.3%
industry: 12.1%
services: 49.6% (2008)
Unemployment rate: 6.4% (2016 est.) 5.3% (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line: 6% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 27.4% (2008)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 33.7 (2008) 36.5 (2001)
Budget: revenues: $11.02 billion
expenditures: $12.18 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 30.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 31.4% of GDP (2016 est.) 20.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11.3% (2016 est.) 4.1% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: $264 million (2016 est.) -$222 million (2015 est.)
Exports: $12.48 billion (2016 est.) $15.59 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: oil and gas 90%, machinery, foodstuffs, cotton
Exports - partners: Italy 26.3%, Germany 13.3%, Indonesia 7%, France 6.9%, Czech Republic 6% (2015)
Imports: $7.741 billion (2016 est.) $9.774 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, metals, chemicals
Imports - partners: Russia 19.9%, Turkey 16.5%, UK 8.6%, Germany 6.6%, Italy 6.3%, US 4.1% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $7.453 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $7.91 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $12.65 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $12.28 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $72.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $66.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $16.28 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $14.48 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Azerbaijani manats (AZN) per US dollar - 1.526 (2016 est.) 1.0246 (2015 est.) 1.0246 (2014 est.) 0.7844 (2013 est.) 0.79 (2012 est.)
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Electricity - production: 23 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 20 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 500 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 100 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 7.4 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 85% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 14.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 848,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 744,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 7 billion bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 139,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 104,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 37,330 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 2,249 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 19.96 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 11.23 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 8.44 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 450 million cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 991.1 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 35 million Mt (2013 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total: 10.697 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 109 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: requires considerable expansion and modernization; fixed-line telephone and a broad range of other telecom services are controlled by a state-owned telecommunications monopoly and growth has been stagnant; more competition exists in the mobile-cellular ma

domestic: teledensity of 18 fixed lines per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity has increased to 109 telephones per 100 persons; satellite service connects Baku to a modern switch in its exclave of Naxcivan (Nakhichevan)

international: country code - 994; the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic link transits Azerbaijan providing international connectivity to neighboring countries; the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still serviceable; satellite earth stations - 2 (2015)
Broadcast media: 3 state-run and 1 public TV channels; 4 domestic commercial TV stations and about 15 regional TV stations; cable TV services are available in Baku; 1 state-run and 1 public radio network operating; a small number of private commercial radio stations broad (2010)
Internet country code: .az
Internet users: total: 7.531 million percent of population: 77% (July 2015 est.)
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Airports: 37 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 30
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 7

under 914 m: 7 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2012)
Pipelines: condensate 89 km; gas 3,890 km; oil 2,446 km (2013)
Railways: total 2,068 km
broad gauge: 2,068 km 1.520-m gauge (1,240 km electrified) (2014)
Roadways: total 52,942 km
paved: 26,789 km
unpaved: 26,153 km (2006)
Merchant marine: total 90

by type: cargo 27, chemical tanker 1, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 8, petroleum tanker 47, roll on/roll off 3, specialized tanker 2

foreign-owned: 1 (Turkey 1)

registered in other countries: 2 (Malta 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Baku (Baki) located on the Caspian Sea
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Military branches: Army, Navy, Air, and Air Defense Forces (2010)
Military service age and obligation: 18-35 years of age for compulsory military service; service obligation 18 months or 12 months for university graduates; 17 years of age for voluntary service; 17 year olds are considered to be on active service at cadet military schools (2012)
Military expenditures: 5.2% of GDP (2015) 5.1% of GDP (2014) 4.7% of GDP (2013) 4.64% of GDP (2012) 4.67% of GDP (2011)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified the Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea; the dispute over the break-away Nagorno-Karabakh region and the Armenian military occupation of surrounding lands in Azerbaijan remains the primary focus of regional instability; residents have evacuated the former Soviet-era small ethnic enclaves in Armenia and Azerbaijan; local border forces struggle to control the illegal transit of goods and people across the porous, undemarcated Armenian, Azerbaijani, and Georgian borders; bilateral talks continue with Turkmenistan on dividing the seabed and contested oilfields in the middle of the Caspian
Refugees and internally displaced persons: IDPs: 618,220 (conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh; IDPs are mainly ethnic Azerbaijanis but also include ethnic Kurds, Russians, and Turks predominantly from occupied territories around Nagorno-Karabakh; includes IDPs' descendants, returned IDPs, and people living in insecure areas and excludes people displaced by natural disasters; around half the IDPs live in the capital Baku) (2015)
stateless persons: 3,585 (2015)
Illicit drugs: limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; small government eradication program; transit point for Southwest Asian opiates bound for Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe
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