Bosnia and Herzegovina Population: 3,849,891

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 History
Bosnia and Herzegovina declared sovereignty in October 1991 and independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "Greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak-Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed a peace agreement that ended three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Peace Accords retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a multiethnic and democratic government charged with conducting foreign, diplomatic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government composed of two entities roughly equal in size: the predominantly Bosniak-Bosnian Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the predominantly Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments are responsible for overseeing most government functions. Additionally, the Dayton Accords established the Office of the High Representative to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. The Peace Implementation Council at its conference in Bonn in 1997 also gave the High Representative the authority to impose legislation and remove officials, the so-called "Bonn Powers." An original NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops assembled in 1995 was succeeded over time by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR). In 2004, European Union peacekeeping troops (EUFOR) replaced SFOR. Currently, EUFOR deploys around 600 troops in theater in a security assistance and training capacity.

 Geography
    Within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia and Montenegro, and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority in the west and an ethnic Serb majority in the east
Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia
Geographic coordinates: 44 00 N, 18 00 E
Area: total: 51,197 sq km
land: 51,187 sq km
water: 10 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land Boundaries: total: 1,543 km border countries (3): Croatia 956 km, Montenegro 242 km, Serbia 345 km
Coastline: 20 km
Maritime claims: NA
Climate: hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast
Terrain: mountains and valleys
Natural resources: coal, iron ore, antimony, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, cobalt, manganese, nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, timber, hydropower
Land use: agricultural land: 42.2% (2011 est.) arable land: 19.7% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 2% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 20.5% (2011 est.) forest: 42.8% (2011 est.)
other: 15% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 30 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes
Current Environment Issues: air pollution; deforestation and illegal logging; inadequate wastewater treatment and flood management facilities; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; land mines left over from the 1992-95 civil strife are a hazard in some areas
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)
adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian
Ethnic groups: Bosniak 50.1%, Serb 30.8%, Croat 15.4%, other 2.7%, not declared/no answer 1% (2013 est.) note: Republika Srpska authorities dispute the methodology and refuse to recognize the results; Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam
Languages: Bosnian (official) 52.9%, Serbian (official) 30.8%, Croatian (official) 14.6%, other 1.6%, no answer 0.2% (2013 est.)
Religions: Muslim 50.7%, Orthodox 30.7%, Roman Catholic 15.2%, atheist 0.8%, agnostic 0.3%, other 1.2%, undeclared/no answer 1.1% (2013 est.)
Population: 3,849,891 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 13.24% (male 263,338 /female 246,220)
15-24 years: 11.26% (male 223,824 /female 209,829)
25-54 years: 45.51% (male 881,331 /female 870,601)
55-64 years: 14.95% (male 278,460 /female 297,231)
65 years and over: 15.04% (male 229,282 /female 349,775) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 43.3 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 20.7 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 22.5 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 4.4 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 42.5 years
male: 40.9 years
female: 43.9 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.17% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 8.7 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 10.1 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 48.2% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 0.55% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 343,000 SARAJEVO (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 27 years (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 11 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 5.4 deaths/1,000 live births male: 5.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.1 years male: 74.1 years
female: 80.3 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.31 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 45.8% (2011/12)
Physicians density: 1.89 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density: 3.5 beds/1,000 population (2013)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 99.7% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 99.9% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0.3% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 98.9% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 92% of population (2015 est.)
total: 94.8% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 1.1% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 8% of population (2015 est.)
total: 5.2% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: n/a
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: n/a
HIV/AIDS - deaths: n/a
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 17.9% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 1.6% (2012)
Education expenditures: n/a
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
total population: 98.5%
male: 99.5%
female: 97.5% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 14 years male: 14 years female: 15 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 45.8% male: 43.1% female: 51.4% (2017 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
local long form: none
local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina
former: People's Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
abbreviation: BiH
etymology: the larger northern territory is named for the Bosna River; the smaller southern section takes its name from the German word "herzog," meaning "duke," and the ending "-ovina," meaning "land," forming the combination denoting "dukedom"
Government type: parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Sarajevo
geographic coordinates: 43 52 N, 18 25 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
etymology: the name derives from the Turkish noun "saray," meaning "palace" or "mansion," and the term "ova," signifying "plain(s)," to give a meaning of "palace plains" or "the plains about the palace"
Administrative divisions: 3 first-order administrative divisions - Brcko District (Brcko Distrikt) (ethnically mixed), Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine) (predominantly Bosniak-Croat), Republika Srpska (predominantly Serb)
Independence: 1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia); note - referendum for independence completed on 1 March 1992; independence declared on 3 March 1992
National holiday: Independence Day, 1 March (1992) and Statehood Day, 25 November (1943) - both observed in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina entity; Victory Day, 9 May (1945) and Dayton Agreement Day, 21 November (1995) - both observed in the Republika Srpska entity note: there is no national-level holiday
Constitution: history: 14 December 1995 (constitution included as part of the Dayton Peace Accords); note - each of the political entities has its own constitution amendments: decided by the Parliamentary Assembly, including a two-thirds majority vote of members present in the House of Representatives; the constitutional article on human rights and fundamental freedoms cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2009 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts
Suffrage: 18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Zeljko KOMSIC (chairman since 20 July 2019, presidency member since 20 November 2018 - Croat seat); Milorad DODIK (presidency member since 20 November 2018 - Serb seat); Sefik DZAFEROVIC (presidency member since 20 November 2018 - Bosniak seat)

head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Denis ZVIZDIC (since 11 February 2015)

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman, approved by the state-level House of Representatives elections/appointments: 3-member presidency (1 Bosniak and 1 Croat elected from the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 1 Serb elected from the Republika Srpska) directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term, but then ineligible for 4 years); the presidency chairpersonship rotates every 8 months with the new member of the presidency elected with the highest number of votes starting the new mandate as chair; election last held on 7 October 2018 (next to be held in October 2022); the chairman of the Council of Ministers appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the state-level House of Representatives

election results: percent of vote - Milorad DODIK (SNSD) 53.9% - Serb seat; Zeljko KOMSIC (DF) 52.6% - Croat seat; Sefik DZAFEROVIC (SDA) 36.6% - Bosniak seat

note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Marinko CAVARA (since 11 February 2015); Vice Presidents Melika MAHMUTBEGOVIC (since 11 February 2015), Milan DUNOVIC (since 11 February 2015); President of the Republika Srpska Zeljka CVIJANOVIC (since 18 November 2018); Vice Presidents Ramiz SALKIC (since 24 November 2014), Josip JERKOVIC (since 24 November 2014)
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina consists of: House of Peoples or Dom Naroda (15 seats - 5 Bosniak, 5 Croat, 5 Serb; members designated by the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina's House of Peoples and the Republika Srpska's National Assembly to serve 4-year terms) House of Representatives or Predstavnicki Dom (42 seats to include 28 seats allocated to the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 14 to the Republika Srpska; members directly elected by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms); note - the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature that consists of the House of Peoples (58 seats - 17 Bosniak, 17 Croat, 17 Serb, 7 other) and the House of Representatives (98 seats; members directly elected by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms); Republika Srpska's unicameral legislature is the National Assembly (83 directly elected delegates serve 4-year terms)

elections: House of Peoples - last held on 18 October 2018 (next to be held in October 2022) House of Representatives - last held on 7 October 2018 (next to be held in October 2022)

election results: House of Peoples - percent of vote by coalition/party - NA; seats by coalition/party - NA; composition - men 13, women 2, percent of women 13.3% House of Representatives - percent of vote by coalition/party - SDA 17%, SNSD 16%, SDS/NDP/NS/SRS-VS 9.8%, HDZ-BiH/HSS/HKDU/HSP-AS BiH/HDU BiH 9.1%, DF, 5.8%, PDP 5.1%, DNS 4.2%, SBB BiH 4.2%, NS/HC 2.9%, NB 2.5%, PDA 2.3%, SP 1.9%, A-SDA 1.8%, other 17.4%; seats by coalition/party - SDA 9, SNSD 6, SDP 5, HDZ-BiH/HSS/HKDU/HSP-AS BiH/HDU BiH 5, SDS/NDP/NS/SRS-VS 3, DF 3, PDP 2, SBB BiH 2, NS/HC 2, DNS 1, NB 1 PDA 1, SP 1, A-SDA 1; composition - men 33, women 9, percent of women 21.4%; note - total Parliamentary Assembly percent of women 19.3%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members); Court of BiH (consists of 44 national judges and 7 international judges organized into 3 divisions - Administrative, Appellate, and Criminal, which includes a War Crimes Chamber) judge selection and term of office: BiH Constitutional Court judges - 4 selected by the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina House of Representatives, 2 selected by the Republika Srpska's National Assembly, and 3 non-Bosnian judges selected by the president of the European Court of Human Rights; Court of BiH president and national judges appointed by the High Judicial and Prosecutorial Council; Court of BiH president appointed for renewable 6-year term; other national judges appointed to serve until age 70; international judges recommended by the president of the Court of BiH and appointed by the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina; international judges appointed to serve until age 70

subordinate courts: the Federation has 10 cantonal courts plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska has a supreme court, 5 district courts, and a number of municipal courts
Political parties and leaders: Alliance for a Better Future of BiH or SBB BiH [Fahrudin RADONCIC] Alliance of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK] Alternative Party for Democratic Activity or A-SDA [Nermin OGRESEVIC] Croat Peasants' Party or HSS [Mario KARAMATIC] Croatian Christian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HKDU [Ivan MUSA] Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HDU-BiH [Miro GRABOVAC-TITAN] Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HDZ-BiH [Dragan COVIC] Croatian Democratic Union 1990 or HDZ-1990 [Ilija CVITANOVIC] Croatian Party of Rights dr. Ante Starcevic or HSP-AS Bih [Karlo STARCEVIC] Democratic Alliance or DEMOS [Nedeljko CUBRILOVIC] Democratic Front of DF [Zeljko KOMSIC] Democratic Peoples' Alliance or DNS [Marko PAVIC] Independent Bloc or NB [Senad SEPIC] Movement for Democratic Action or PDA [Mirsad KUKIC] Progressive Srpska or NS [Goran DORDIC] Our Party or NS/HC [Predrag KOJOVIC] Party for Democratic Action or SDA [Bakir IZETBEGOVIC] Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Branislav BORENOVIC] People's Democratic Movement or NDP [Dragan CAVIC] Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Vukota GOVEDARICA] Serb Radical Party-Dr. Vojislav Seselj or SRS-VS [Vojislav SESELJ] (members joined the PDP) Social Democratic Party or SDP [Nermin NIKSIC] Socialist Party or SP [Petar DOKIC] United Srpska or US [Nenad STEVANDIC]
International organization participation: BIS, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
National symbol(s): golden lily;
national colors: blue, yellow, white
National anthem: name: "Drzavna himna Bosne i Hercegovine" (The National Anthem of Bosnia and Herzegovina)
lyrics/music: none officially; Dusan SESTIC and Benjamin ISOVIC/Dusan SESTIC

note: music adopted 1999; lyrics proposed in 2009 and others in 2016 were not approved; a parliamentary committee launched a new initiative for lyrics in February 2018
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Milenko MISIC (since October 2018)
chancery: 2109 E Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 337-1500
FAX: [1] (202) 337-1502
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Eric NELSON (since 19 February 2019)
embassy: 1 Robert C. Frasure Street, 71000 Sarajevo
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [387] (33) 704-000
FAX: [387] (33) 659-722 branch office(s): Banja Luka, Mostar
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 Economy
Bosnia and Herzegovina has a transitional economy with limited market reforms. The economy relies heavily on the export of metals, energy, textiles, and furniture as well as on remittances and foreign aid. A highly decentralized government hampers economic policy coordination and reform, while excessive bureaucracy and a segmented market discourage foreign investment. The economy is among the least competitive in the region. Foreign banks, primarily from Austria and Italy, control much of the banking sector, though the largest bank is a private domestic one. The konvertibilna marka (convertible mark) - the national currency introduced in 1998 - is pegged to the euro through a currency board arrangement, which has maintained confidence in the currency and has facilitated reliable trade links with European partners. Bosnia and Herzegovina became a full member of the Central European Free Trade Agreement in September 2007. In 2016, Bosnia began a three-year IMF loan program, but it has struggled to meet the economic reform benchmarks required to receive all funding installments. Bosnia and Herzegovina's private sector is growing slowly, but foreign investment dropped sharply after 2007 and remains low. High unemployment remains the most serious macroeconomic problem. Successful implementation of a value-added tax in 2006 provided a steady source of revenue for the government and helped rein in gray-market activity, though public perceptions of government corruption and misuse of taxpayer money has encouraged a large informal economy to persist. National-level statistics have improved over time, but a large share of economic activity remains unofficial and unrecorded. Bosnia and Herzegovina's top economic priorities are: acceleration of integration into the EU; strengthening the fiscal system; public administration reform; World Trade Organization membership; and securing economic growth by fostering a dynamic, competitive private sector.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $44.83 billion (2017 est.) $43.54 billion (2016 est.) $42.19 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $18.17 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3% (2017 est.) 3.2% (2016 est.) 3.1% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $12,800 (2017 est.) $12,400 (2016 est.) $11,900 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 11% of GDP (2017 est.) 11.1% of GDP (2016 est.) 10.5% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 77.4% (2017 est.) government consumption: 20% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 16.6% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 2.3% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 38.7% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -55.1% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 6.8% (2017 est.) industry: 28.9% (2017 est.) services: 64.3% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock
Industries: steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, ammunition, domestic appliances, oil refining
Industrial production growth rate: 3% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 1.38 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 18%
industry: 30.4%
services: 51.7% (2017 est.)
Unemployment rate: 20.5% (2017 est.) 25.4% (2016 est.) note: official rate; actual rate is lower as many technically unemployed persons work in the gray economy
Population below poverty line: 16.9% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.9%
highest 10%: 25.8% (2011 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 33.8 (2011) 33.1 (2007)
Budget: revenues: 7.993 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 7.607 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 44% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): 2.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 39.5% of GDP (2017 est.) 44.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions.
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.2% (2017 est.) -1.1% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: -$873 million (2017 est.) -$821 million (2016 est.)
Exports: $5.205 billion (2017 est.) $4.288 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: metals, clothing, wood products
Exports - partners: Germany 14.7%, Croatia 11.8%, Italy 11.1%, Serbia 10%, Slovenia 9%, Austria 8.3% (2017)
Imports: $9.547 billion (2017 est.) $8.337 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: Germany 11.6%, Italy 11.3%, Serbia 11.1%, Croatia 10.1%, China 6.5%, Slovenia 5%, Russia 4.7%, Turkey 4.2% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $6.474 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $5.137 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $10.87 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $10.64 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $7.332 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $7.071 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $0 (2014)
Market value of publicly traded shares: n/a
Exchange rates: konvertibilna markas (BAM) per US dollar - 1.729 (2017 est.) 1.7674 (2016 est.) 1.7674 (2015 est.) 1.7626 (2014 est.) 1.4718 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 16.99 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 11.87 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 6.007 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports: 3.084 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 4.676 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 49% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 51% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 1% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 18,480 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 32,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 4,603 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 18,280 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 226.5 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 226.5 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 22.07 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 3,440,085
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 89 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: post-war reconstruction of the telecommunications network, aided by an internationally sponsored program, resulted in sharp increases in fixed-line telephone availability; integration with the EU has given stability to the present economy, additionally a regulatory framework and the market has been liberalised; DSL and cable are the chief platforms for fixed-line connectivity,  there is a small market presence of fibre broadband; new mobile roaming fees come into effect similar to other EU countries; rural areas still suffer from insufficient connectivity (2018)

domestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 20 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has been increasing rapidly and stands at roughly 90 telephones per 100 persons (2018)

international: country code - 387; no satellite earth stations
Broadcast media: 3 public TV broadcasters: Radio and TV of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Federation TV (operating 2 networks), and Republika Srpska Radio-TV; a local commercial network of 5 TV stations; 3 private, near-national TV stations and dozens of small independent TV broadcasting stations; 3 large public radio broadcasters and many private radio stations
Internet country code: .ba
Internet users: total: 2,677,502
percent of population: 69.3% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 24 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 7
(2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2017)
under 914 m: 2 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 17
(2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 5 (2013)
under 914 m: 11 (2013)
Heliports: 6 (2013)
Pipelines: 147 km gas, 9 km oil (2013)
Railways: total 965 km
(2014) standard gauge: 965 km 1.435-m gauge (565 km electrified) (2014)
Roadways: total 22,926 km
(2010) paved: 19,426 km (4,652 km of interurban roads) (2010)
unpaved: 3,500 km (2010)
Waterways: (Sava River on northern border; open to shipping but use limited) (2011)
Ports and terminals:
river port(s): Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac, Brcko, Orasje (Sava River)
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 Military
Military branches: Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Oruzanih Snaga Bosne i Hercegovine, OSBiH): Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Air Force and Air Defense (Brigada Zracnih Snaga i Protuzracne Odbrane, br ZSiPZO), Tactical Support Brigade (Brigada Takticke Podrske, br TP) (2015)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; mandatory retirement at age 35 or after 15 years of service for E-1 through E-4, mandatory retirement at age 50 and 30 years of service for E-5 through E-9, mandatory retirement at age 55 and 30 years of service for all officers (2014)
Military expenditures: 0.99% of GDP (2016) 1% of GDP (2015) 1.03% of GDP (2014) 1.09% of GDP (2013) 1.15% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Serbia delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 5,120 (Croatia) (2018) IDPs: 99,000 (Bosnian Croats, Serbs, and Bosniaks displaced by inter-ethnic violence, human rights violations, and armed conflict during the 1992-95 war) (2018)
stateless persons: 90 (2018) note: 41,265 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-August 2019)
Illicit drugs: increasingly a transit point for heroin being trafficked to Western Europe; minor transit point for marijuana; remains highly vulnerable to money-laundering activity given a primarily cash-based and unregulated economy, weak law enforcement, and instances of corruption
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