Colombia Population: 47,220,856

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 History
Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others are Ecuador and Venezuela). A five-decade-long conflict between government forces and antigovernment insurgent groups, principally the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) heavily funded by the drug trade, escalated during the 1990s. More than 31,000 former paramilitaries had demobilized by the end of 2006 and the United Self Defense Forces of Colombia as a formal organization had ceased to function. In the wake of the paramilitary demobilization, emerging criminal groups arose, whose members include some former paramilitaries. The insurgents lacked the military or popular support necessary to overthrow the government. Large areas of the countryside were under guerrilla influence or contested by security forces. After four years of formal peace negotiations, the Colombian Government signed a peace deal with the FARC in November 2016, which was subsequently endorsed by the Colombian Congress. The agreement calls for members of the FARC to demobilize and be incorporated into mainstream society and politics. The Colombian Government has stepped up efforts to reassert government control throughout the country, and now has a presence in every one of its administrative departments. Despite decades of internal conflict and drug related security challenges, Colombia maintains relatively strong democratic institutions characterized by peaceful, transparent elections and the protection of civil liberties.

 Geography
Only South American country with coastlines on both the North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea
Location: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama
Geographic coordinates: 4 00 N, 72 00 W
Area: total: 1,138,910 sq km
land: 1,038,700 sq km
water: 100,210 sq km

note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, and Serrana Bank

Size comparison: slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land Boundaries: total: 6,672 km border countries (5): Brazil 1,790 km, Ecuador 708 km, Panama 339 km, Peru 1,494 km, Venezuela 2,341 km
Coastline: 3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands
Terrain: flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains (Llanos)
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower
Land use: agricultural land: 37.5% arable land 1.4%; permanent crops 1.6%; permanent pasture 34.5% forest: 54.4%
other: 8.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 10,900 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts volcanism: Galeras (elev. 4,276 m) is one of Colombia's most active volcanoes, having erupted in 2009 and 2010 causing major evacuations; it has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Nevado del Ruiz (elev. 5,321 m), 129 km (80 mi) west of Bogota, erupted in 1985 producing lahars (mudflows) that killed 23,000 people; the volcano last erupted in 1991; additionally, after 500 years of dormancy, Nevado del Huila reawakened in 2007 and has experienced frequent eruptions since then; other historically active volcanoes include Cumbal, Dona Juana, Nevado del Tolima, and Purace
Current Environment Issues: deforestation; soil and water quality damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle emissions
International Environment Agreements: party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
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 People
Nationality: noun: Colombian(s)
adjective: Colombian
Ethnic groups: mestizo and white 84.2%, Afro-Colombian (includes multatto, Raizal, and Palenquero) 10.4%, Amerindian 3.4%, Roma
Languages: Spanish (official)
Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, other 10%
Population: 47,220,856 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 24.57% (male 5,940,903/female 5,659,594)
15-24 years: 17.54% (male 4,216,437/female 4,066,079)
25-54 years: 41.82% (male 9,788,057/female 9,958,982)
55-64 years: 8.9% (male 1,973,215/female 2,230,609)
65 years and over: 7.17% (male 1,412,209/female 1,974,771) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 45.6%
youth dependency ratio: 35.4%
elderly dependency ratio: 10.2%
potential support ratio: 9.8% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 29.6 years
male: 28.7 years
female: 30.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.02% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 16.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 5.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 76.4% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.66% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: BOGOTA (capital) 9.765 million; Medellin 3.911 million; Cali 2.646 million; Barranquilla 1.991 million; Bucaramanga 1.215 million; Cartagena 1.092 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 21.4 note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 64 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 14.1 deaths/1,000 live births male: 17.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.7 years male: 72.6 years
female: 79 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.02 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 79.1% (2009/10)
Health expenditures: 7.2% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 1.47 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Hospital bed density: 1.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 96.8% of population
rural: 73.8% of population
total: 91.4% of population

unimproved:
urban: 3.2% of population
rural: 26.2% of population
total: 8.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 85.2% of population
rural: 67.9% of population
total: 81.1% of population

unimproved:
urban: 14.8% of population
rural: 32.1% of population
total: 18.9% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.48% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 146,000 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 2,300 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 20.7% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 3.4% (2010)
Education expenditures: 4.5% of GDP (2015)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.7%
male: 94.6%
female: 94.8% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 14 years male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 18.7% male: 14.6%
female: 24.3% (2014 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Colombia
conventional short form: Colombia
local long form: Republica de Colombia
local short form: Colombia
etymology: the country is named after explorer Christopher COLUMBUS
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Bogota
geographic coordinates: 4 36 N, 74 05 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 32 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital district* (distrito capital); Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Bogota*, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, Archipielago de San Andres, Providencia y Santa Catalina (colloquially San Andres y Providencia), Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada
Independence: 20 July 1810 (from Spain)
National holiday: Independence Day, 20 July (1810)
Constitution: several previous; latest promulgated 5 July 1991; amended many times, last in 2015 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system influenced by the Spanish and French civil codes
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Juan Manuel SANTOS Calderon (since 7 August 2010); Vice President German VARGAS Lleras (since 7 August 2014); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Juan Manuel SANTOS Calderon (since 7 August 2010); Vice President German VARGAS Lleras (since 7 August 2014)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term; election last held on 25 May 2014 with a runoff election 15 on June 2014 (next to be held on 27 May 2018); note - recent political reform eliminated presidential reelection; beginning in 2018, presidents can only serve one 4-year term

election results: Juan Manuel SANTOS Calderon reelected president in runoff; percent of vote - Juan Manuel SANTOS Calderon (U Party) 51.0%, Oscar Ivan ZULUAGA (CD) 45.0%, other 4.0%
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the Senate or Senado (102 seats; 100 members elected nationally - not by district or state - and two elected on a special ballot for indigenous communities to serve 4-year terms) and the Chamber of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (166 seats; members elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held on 9 March 2014 (next to be held in March 2018); Chamber of Representatives - last held on 9 March 2014 (next to be held in March 2018)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - U Party 21, CD 20, PC 18, PL 17, CR 9, PDA 5, Green Party 5, other 7; Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PL 39, U Party 37, PC 27, CD 19, CR 16, Green Party 6, PDA 3, other 19
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (consists of the Civil-Agrarian and Labor Chambers each with 7 judges, and the Penal Chamber with 9 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 magistrates); Council of State (consists of 31 members); Superior Judiciary Council (consists of 13 magistrates) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the Supreme Court members from candidates submitted by the Superior Judiciary Council; judges elected for individual 8-year terms; Constitutional Court magistrates - nominated by the president, by the Supreme Court, and elected by the Senate; judges elected for individual 8-year terms; Council of State members appointed by the State Council plenary from lists nominated by the Superior Judiciary Council

subordinate courts: Superior Tribunals (appellate courts for each of the judicial districts); regional courts; civil municipal courts; Superior Military Tribunal; first instance administrative courts
Political parties and leaders: Alternative Democratic Pole or PDA [Clara LOPEZ] Conservative Party or PC [David BARGUIL] Democratic Center Party or CD [Alvaro URIBE Velez, Oscar Ivan ZULUAGA, Carlos HOLMES TRUJILLO, Ivan DUQUE] Green Alliance [Jorge LONDONO, Antonio SANGUINO, Luis AVELLANEDA, Camilo ROMERO] Liberal Party or PL [Horacio SERPA] Citizens Option (Opcion Ciudadana) or OC (formerly known as the National Integration Party or PIN) [Angel ALIRIO Moreno] Radical Change or CR [Carlos Fernando GALAN] Social National Unity Party or U Party [Roy BARRERAS, Jose David NAME] note: Colombia has eight major political parties, and numerous smaller movements
Political pressure groups and leaders: Central Union of Workers or CUT Colombian Confederation of Workers or CTC General Confederation of Workers or CGT National Liberation Army or ELN
International organization participation: BCIE, BIS, CAN, Caricom (observer), CD, CDB, CELAC, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-3, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, PCA, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): Andean condor; national colors: yellow, blue, red
National anthem: name: "Himno Nacional de la Republica de Colombia" (National Anthem of the Republic of Colombia)
lyrics/music: Rafael NUNEZ/Oreste SINDICI

note: adopted 1920; the anthem was created from an inspirational poem written by President Rafael NUNEZ
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Juan Carlos PINZON Bueno (since 3 August 2015)
chancery: 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-8338
FAX: [1] (202) 232-8643
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Newark (NJ), Orlando, San Juan (Puerto Rico) consulate(s): Boston, Chicago, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Kevin WHITAKER (since 11 June 2014)
embassy: Calle 24 Bis No. 48-50, Bogota, D.C.
mailing address: Carrera 45 No. 24B-27, Bogota, D.C.
telephone: [57] (1) 275-2000
FAX: [57] (1) 275-4600
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 Economy
Colombia's consistently sound economic policies and aggressive promotion of free trade agreements in recent years have bolstered its ability to weather external shocks. Colombia depends heavily on energy and mining exports, making it vulnerable to a drop in commodity prices. Colombia is the world's fourth largest coal exporter and Latin America's fourth largest oil producer. Economic development is stymied by inadequate infrastructure, inequality, poverty, narcotrafficking and an uncertain security situation. Declining oil prices have resulted in a drop in government revenues. In 2014, Colombia passed a tax reform bill to offset the lost revenue from the global drop in oil prices. The SANTOS administration is also using tax reform to help finance implementation of a peace deal between FARC and the government. Colombian officials estimate a peace deal may bolster economic growth by up to 2%. Despite austerity measures put in place by the SANTOS administration, GDP and foreign direct investment fell in 2015, while the El Nino weather phenomenon caused food and energy prices to rise, with inflation spiking to 6.8%. In order to combat inflation, the Central Bank raised interest rates four times during the last four months of 2015, ending the year with a 25 basis point increase to 5.75%. Unemployment has continued to decrease and hit a record low of 8.9% in 2015, but the rate is still one of Latin America's highest. Nevertheless, Colombia’s GDP growth rate makes it the region’s best performer among large economies in 2015. Real GDP growth averaged 4.8% per year from 2010-2014, continuing a decade of strong economic performance, before dropping in 2015. All three major ratings agencies upgraded Colombia's government debt to investment grade in 2013 and 2014, which helped to attract record levels of investment, mostly in the hydrocarbons sector. However, Standard & Poor’s downgraded its long-term outlook from stable to negative in early 2016. The change, due largely to falling government revenues, could cause Colombia to lose its investment-grade bond status. The SANTOS Administration's foreign policy has focused on bolstering Colombia's commercial ties and boosting investment at home. Colombia has signed or is negotiating Free Trade Agreements (FTA) with more than a dozen countries; the US-Colombia FTA went into force in May 2012. The US and Colombia have benefitted from the FTA, but Colombia’s ability to take full advantage of its enhanced access to American markets continues to be constrained by lack of export diversification. Nontariff measures remain a point of contention for bilateral trade relations. Truck scrappage regulation, and restrictions on liquor, pharmaceutical, and ethanol imports are top irritants in the bilateral trade relationship. Colombia is a founding member of the Pacific Alliance - a regional trade block formed in 2012 by Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru to promote regional trade and economic integration. In 2013, Colombia began its accession process to the OECD.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $690.4 billion (2016 est.) $675.7 billion (2015 est.) $655.5 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $274.1 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2.2% (2016 est.) 3.1% (2015 est.) 4.4% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $14,200 (2016 est.) $14,000 (2015 est.) $13,800 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 20% of GDP (2016 est.) 21.3% of GDP (2015 est.) 21.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 63.3%
government consumption: 18.8%
investment in fixed capital: 26.3%
investment in inventories: 0.9%
exports of goods and services: 13.5%
imports of goods and services: -22.8% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 63.3%
government consumption: 18.8%
investment in fixed capital: 26.3%
investment in inventories: 0.9%
exports of goods and services: 13.5%
imports of goods and services: -22.8% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; shrimp; forest products
Industries: textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds
Industrial production growth rate: 1.9% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 24.43 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 17%
industry: 21%
services: 62% (2011 est.)
Unemployment rate: 9.5% (2016 est.) 8.9% (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line: 27.8% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.1%
highest 10%: 42% (2012 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 53.5 (2012) 56.9 (1996)
Budget: revenues: $76.06 billion
expenditures: $84.23 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 27.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 50.5% of GDP (2016 est.) 49.6% of GDP (2015 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.8% (2016 est.) 5% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$14.31 billion (2016 est.) -$18.76 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $33.64 billion (2016 est.) $38.12 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: petroleum, coal, emeralds, coffee, nickel, cut flowers, bananas, apparel
Exports - partners: US 27.5%, Panama 7.2%, China 5.2%, Spain 4.4%, Ecuador 4% (2015)
Imports: $47.15 billion (2016 est.) $52.04 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods, chemicals, paper products, fuels, electricity
Imports - partners: US 28.8%, China 18.6%, Mexico 7.1%, Germany 4.2% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $46.08 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $46.22 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $110.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $107.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $161.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $149.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $50.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $47.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $85.96 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $146.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $202.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: Colombian pesos (COP) per US dollar - 3,051.1 (2016 est.) 2,741.8 (2015 est.) 2,741.8 (2014 est.) 2,001.1 (2013 est.) 1,798 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 68 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 60 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 800 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 47 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 16 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 32.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 67.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 1.006 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 711,900 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 2.3 billion bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 323,700 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 299,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 97,820 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 76,180 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 12.68 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 11.73 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 950 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 134.7 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 74 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 57.327 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 123 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: modern system in many respects with a nationwide microwave radio relay system, a domestic satellite system with 41 earth stations, and a fiber-optic network linking 50 cities; telecommunications sector liberalized during the 1990s; multiple providers of b

domestic: fixed-line connections stand at about 15 per 100 persons; mobile cellular telephone subscribership is about 120 per 100 persons; competition among cellular service providers is resulting in falling local and international calling rates and contributing to

international: country code - 57; multiple submarine cable systems provide links to the US, parts of the Caribbean, and Central and South America; satellite earth stations - 10 (6 Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 3 fully digitalized international switching centers) (2011)
Broadcast media: combination of state-owned and privately owned broadcast media provide service; more than 500 radio stations and many national, regional, and local TV stations (2007)
Internet country code: .co
Internet users: total: 26.128 million percent of population: 55.9% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 836 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 121
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 39
914 to 1,523 m: 53
under 914 m: 18 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 715
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 25
914 to 1,523 m: 201
under 914 m: 488 (2013)
Heliports: 3 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 4,991 km; oil 6,796 km; refined products 3,429 km (2013)
Railways: total 2,141 km
standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 1,991 km 0.914-m gauge (2015)
Roadways: total 204,855 km
(2015)
Waterways: 24,725 km (18,300 km navigable; the most important waterway, the River Magdalena, of which 1,488 km is navigable, is dredged regularly to ensure safe passage of cargo vessels and container barges) (2012)
Merchant marine: total 12

by type: cargo 9, chemical tanker 1, petroleum tanker 2

registered in other countries: 4 (Antigua and Barbuda 1, Panama 2, Portugal 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Atlantic Ocean (Caribbean) - Cartagena, Santa Marta, Turbo; Pacific Ocean - Buenaventura
river port(s): Barranquilla (Rio Magdalena) oil terminal(s): Covenas offshore terminal dry bulk cargo port(s): Puerto Bolivar (coal) container port(s) (TEUs): Cartagena (1,853,342)
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 Military
Military branches: National Army (Ejercito Nacional), Republic of Colombia Navy (Armada Republica de Colombia, ARC, includes Naval Aviation, Naval Infantry (Infanteria de Marina, IM), and Coast Guard), Colombian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea de Colombia, FAC) (2012)
Military service age and obligation: 18-24 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; service obligation is 18 months (2012)
Military expenditures: 3.38% of GDP (2015) 3.13% of GDP (2014) 3.29% of GDP (2013) 3.28% of GDP (2012) 3.06% of GDP (2011) 3.63% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: in December 2007, ICJ allocated San Andres, Providencia, and Santa Catalina islands to Colombia under 1928 Treaty but did not rule on 82 degrees W meridian as maritime boundary with Nicaragua; managed dispute with Venezuela over maritime boundary and Venezuelan-administered Los Monjes Islands near the Gulf of Venezuela; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics, guerrilla, and paramilitary activities penetrate all neighboring borders and have caused Colombian citizens to flee mostly into neighboring countries; Colombia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Jamaica, and the US assert various claims to Bajo Nuevo and Serranilla Bank
Refugees and internally displaced persons: IDPs: 6.3 million (conflict between government and illegal armed groups and drug traffickers since 1985; about 300,000 new IDPs each year since 2000) (2015)
stateless persons: 12 (2015)
Illicit drugs: illicit producer of coca, opium poppy, and cannabis; world's leading coca cultivator with 83,000 hectares in coca cultivation in 2011, a 17% decrease over 2010, producing a potential of 195 mt of pure cocaine; the world's largest producer of coca derivatives; supplies cocaine to nearly all of the US market and the great majority of other international drug markets; in 2012, aerial eradication dispensed herbicide to treat over 100,549 hectares combined with manual eradication of 30,486 hectares; a significant portion of narcotics proceeds are either laundered or invested in Colombia through the black market peso exchange; important supplier of heroin to the US market; opium poppy cultivation is estimated to have fallen to 1,100 hectares in 2009 while pure heroin production declined to 2.1 mt; most Colombian heroin is destined for the US market (2013)
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