Ghana Population: 28,102,471

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 History
Formed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland trust territory, Ghana in 1957 became the first sub-Saharan country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. Ghana endured a series of coups before Lt. Jerry RAWLINGS took power in 1981 and banned political parties. After approving a new constitution and restoring multiparty politics in 1992, RAWLINGS won presidential elections in 1992 and 1996 but was constitutionally prevented from running for a third term in 2000. John KUFUOR of the opposition New Patriotic Party (NPP) succeeded him and was reelected in 2004. John Atta MILLS of the National Democratic Congress won the 2008 presidential election and took over as head of state, but he died in July 2012 and was constitutionally succeeded by his vice president, John Dramani MAHAMA, who subsequently won the December 2012 presidential election. In 2016, however, Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO of the NPP defeated MAHAMA, marking the third time that the Ghana’s presidency has changed parties since the return to democracy.

 Geography
    Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake (manmade reservoir) by surface area (8,482 sq km; 3,275 sq mi); the lake was created following the completion of the Akosombo Dam in 1965, which holds back the White Volta and Black Volta Rivers
Location: Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo
Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 2 00 W
Area: total: 238,533 sq km
land: 227,533 sq km
water: 11,000 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Oregon
Land Boundaries: total: 2,420 km border countries (3): Burkina Faso 602 km, Cote d'Ivoire 720 km, Togo 1098 km
Coastline: 539 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north
Terrain: mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area
Natural resources: gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber, hydropower, petroleum, silver, salt, limestone
Land use: agricultural land: 69.1% (2011 est.) arable land: 20.7% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 11.9% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 36.5% (2011 est.) forest: 21.2% (2011 est.)
other: 9.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 340 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: dry, dusty, northeastern harmattan winds from January to March; droughts
Current Environment Issues: recurrent drought in north severely affects agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat destruction threaten wildlife populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
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 People
Nationality: noun: Ghanaian(s)
adjective: Ghanaian
Ethnic groups: Akan 47.5%, Mole-Dagbon 16.6%, Ewe 13.9%, Ga-Dangme 7.4%, Gurma 5.7%, Guan 3.7%, Grusi 2.5%, Mande 1.1%, other 1.4% (2010 est.)
Languages: Asante 16%, Ewe 14%, Fante 11.6%, Boron (Brong) 4.9%, Dagomba 4.4%, Dangme 4.2%, Dagarte (Dagaba) 3.9%, Kokomba 3.5%, Akyem 3.2%, Ga 3.1%, other 31.2% (2010 est.) note: English is the official language
Religions: Christian 71.2% (Pentecostal/Charismatic 28.3%, Protestant 18.4%, Catholic 13.1%, other 11.4%), Muslim 17.6%, traditional 5.2%, other 0.8%, none 5.2% (2010 est.)
Population: 28,102,471 (July 2018 est.) note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
Age structure: 0-14 years: 37.83% (male 5,344,146 /female 5,286,383)
15-24 years: 18.61% (male 2,600,390 /female 2,629,660)
25-54 years: 34.21% (male 4,663,234 /female 4,950,888)
55-64 years: 5.05% (male 690,327 /female 727,957)
65 years and over: 4.3% (male 557,155 /female 652,331) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 73 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 67.1 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 5.9 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 17.1 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 21.2 years
male: 20.7 years
female: 21.7 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.16% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 30.2 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 6.8 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -1.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 56.1% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 3.34% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 3.065 million Kumasi
2.439 million ACCRA (capital)
855,000 Sekondi Takoradi (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 22.3 years (2017 est.) note: median age at first birth among women 25-29
Maternal mortality rate: 319 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 34.1 deaths/1,000 live births male: 38 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 30.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 67.4 years male: 64.9 years
female: 70 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 3.96 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 30.8% (2017)
Physicians density: 0.18 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density: 0.9 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 92.6% of population
rural: 84% of population
total: 88.7% of population

unimproved:
urban: 7.4% of population
rural: 16% of population
total: 11.3% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 20.2% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 8.6% of population (2015 est.)
total: 14.9% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 79.8% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 91.4% of population (2015 est.)
total: 85.1% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.7% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 310,000 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 16,000 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 10.9% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 11.2% (2014)
Education expenditures: 4.5% of GDP (2017)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
total population: 76.6%
male: 82%
female: 71.4% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 12 years male: 12 years female: 11 years (2017)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 15.2% male: 15.8% female: 14.6% (2015 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Ghana
conventional short form: Ghana
former: Gold Coast
etymology: named for the medieval West African kingdom of the same name, but whose location was actually further north than the modern country
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Accra
geographic coordinates: 5 33 N, 0 13 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: the name derives from the Akan word "nkran" meaning "ants," and refers to the numerous anthills in the area around the capital
Administrative divisions: 16 regions; Ahafo, Ashanti, Bono, Bono East, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, North East, Northern, Oti, Savannah, Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western, Western North
Independence: 6 March 1957 (from the UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 6 March (1957)
Constitution: history: several previous; latest drafted 31 March 1992, approved and promulgated 28 April 1992, entered into force 7 January 1993 amendments: proposed by Parliament; consideration requires prior referral to the Council of State, a body of prominent citizens who advise the president of the republic; passage of amendments to "entrenched" constitutional articles (including those on national sovereignty, fundamental rights and freedoms, the structure and authorities of the branches of government, and amendment procedures) requires approval in a referendum by at least 40% participation of eligible voters and at least 75% of votes cast, followed by at least two-thirds majority vote in Parliament, and assent by the president; amendments to non-entrenched articles do not require referenda; amended 1996 (2017)
Legal system: mixed system of English common law and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (since 7 January 2017); Vice President Mahamudu BAWUMIA (since 7 January 2017); the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (since 7 January 2017); Vice President Mahamudu BAWUMIA (since 7 January 2017)

cabinet: Council of Ministers; nominated by the president, approved by Parliament elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 December 2016 (next to be held in December 2020)

election results: Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO elected president in the first round; percent of vote - Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (NPP) 53.7%, John Dramani MAHAMA (NDC) 44.5%, other 1.8%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Parliament (275 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 7 December 2016 (next to be held in December 2020)

election results: percent of vote by party - NPP 54%, NDC 44%, other 2%; seats by party - NPP 171, NDC 104; composition - men 240, women 35, percent of women 12.7%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 12 justices) judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the president in consultation with the Council of State (a small advisory body of prominent citizens) and with the approval of Parliament; other justices appointed by the president upon the advice of the Judicial Council (an 18-member independent body of judicial, military and police officials, and presidential nominees) and on the advice of the Council of State; justices can retire at age 60, with compulsory retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Circuit Court; District Court; regional tribunals
Political parties and leaders: note: Ghana has more than 20 registered parties; included are 5 of the more popular parties as of May 2017
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, C, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): black star, golden eagle;
national colors: red, yellow, green, black
National anthem: name: God Bless Our Homeland Ghana
lyrics/music: unknown/Philip GBEHO

note: music adopted 1957, lyrics adopted 1966; the lyrics were changed twice, in 1960 when a republic was declared and after a 1966 coup
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Barfour ADJEI-BARWUAH (since 21 July 2017)
chancery: 3512 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 686-4520
FAX: [1] (202) 686-4527
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Stephanie S. SULLIVAN (since 30 November 2018)
embassy: 24 Fourth Circular Rd., Cantonments, Accra P.O. Box GP2288, Accra
mailing address: P.O. Box 194, Accra
telephone: [233] 030-274-1000
FAX: [233] 030-274-1389
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 Economy
Ghana has a market-based economy with relatively few policy barriers to trade and investment in comparison with other countries in the region, and Ghana is endowed with natural resources. Ghana's economy was strengthened by a quarter century of relatively sound management, a competitive business environment, and sustained reductions in poverty levels, but in recent years has suffered the consequences of loose fiscal policy, high budget and current account deficits, and a depreciating currency. Agriculture accounts for about 20% of GDP and employs more than half of the workforce, mainly small landholders. Gold, oil, and cocoa exports, and individual remittances, are major sources of foreign exchange. Expansion of Ghana’s nascent oil industry has boosted economic growth, but the fall in oil prices since 2015 reduced by half Ghana’s oil revenue. Production at Jubilee, Ghana's first commercial offshore oilfield, began in mid-December 2010. Production from two more fields, TEN and Sankofa, started in 2016 and 2017 respectively. The country’s first gas processing plant at Atuabo is also producing natural gas from the Jubilee field, providing power to several of Ghana’s thermal power plants. As of 2018, key economic concerns facing the government include the lack of affordable electricity, lack of a solid domestic revenue base, and the high debt burden. The AKUFO-ADDO administration has made some progress by committing to fiscal consolidation, but much work is still to be done. Ghana signed a $920 million extended credit facility with the IMF in April 2015 to help it address its growing economic crisis. The IMF fiscal targets require Ghana to reduce the deficit by cutting subsidies, decreasing the bloated public sector wage bill, strengthening revenue administration, boosting tax revenues, and improving the health of Ghana’s banking sector. Priorities for the new administration include rescheduling some of Ghana’s $31 billion debt, stimulating economic growth, reducing inflation, and stabilizing the currency. Prospects for new oil and gas production and follow through on tighter fiscal management are likely to help Ghana’s economy in 2018.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $134 billion (2017 est.) $123.6 billion (2016 est.) $119.2 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $47.02 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 8.4% (2017 est.) 3.7% (2016 est.) 3.8% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $4,700 (2017 est.) $4,500 (2016 est.) $4,400 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 9% of GDP (2017 est.) 7.8% of GDP (2016 est.) 9% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 80.1% (2017 est.) government consumption: 8.6% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 13.7% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 1.1% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 43% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -46.5% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 18.3% (2017 est.) industry: 24.5% (2017 est.) services: 57.2% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: cocoa, rice, cassava (manioc, tapioca), peanuts, corn, shea nuts, bananas; timber
Industries: mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum smelting, food processing, cement, small commercial ship building, petroleum
Industrial production growth rate: 16.7% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 12.49 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 44.7%
industry: 14.4%
services: 40.9% (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate: 11.9% (2015 est.) 5.2% (2013 est.)
Population below poverty line: 24.2% (2013 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 32.8% (2006)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 42.3 (2012-13) 41.9 (2005-06)
Budget: revenues: 9.544 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 12.36 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 20.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 71.8% of GDP (2017 est.) 73.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12.4% (2017 est.) 17.5% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: -$2.131 billion (2017 est.) -$2.86 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $13.84 billion (2017 est.) $11.14 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: oil, gold, cocoa, timber, tuna, bauxite, aluminum, manganese ore, diamonds, horticultural products
Exports - partners: India 23.8%, UAE 13.4%, China 10.8%, Switzerland 10.1%, Vietnam 5.2%, Burkina Faso 4% (2017)
Imports: $12.65 billion (2017 est.) $12.91 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: capital equipment, refined petroleum, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: China 16.8%, US 8%, UK 6.2%, Belgium 5.9%, India 4.1% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $7.555 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $6.162 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $22.14 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $16.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $19.85 billion (31 December 2013 est.) $118 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $16.62 billion (31 December 2013 est.) $109 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $13.41 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $13.48 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $15.11 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange rates: cedis (GHC) per US dollar - 4.385 (2017 est.) 3.909 (2016 est.) 3.909 (2015 est.) 3.712 (2014 est.) 2.895 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 12.52 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 9.363 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 187 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 511 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 3.801 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 58% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 42% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 1% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 151,000 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 104,000 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 6,220 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 660 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 2,073 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 90,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 2,654 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 85,110 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 914.4 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 1.232 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 317.4 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 22.65 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 13.67 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 36,751,761
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 134 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: primarily microwave radio relay; wireless local loop has been installed; 2019 to bring universal access licenses; government invested in fiber infrastructure; one of the most active mobile markets in Africa (2018)

domestic: fixed-line 1 per 100 subscriptions; competition among multiple mobile-cellular providers has spurred growth with a subscribership of more than 140 per 100 persons and rising (2018)

international: country code - 233; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC, Main One, and GLO-1 fiber-optic submarine cables that provide connectivity to South Africa, Europe, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); microwave radio relay link to Panaftel system connects Ghana to its neighbors
Broadcast media: state-owned TV station, 2 state-owned radio networks; several privately owned TV stations and a large number of privately owned radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are accessible; several cable and satellite TV subscription services are obtainable
Internet country code: .gh
Internet users: total: 9,328,018
percent of population: 34.7% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 10 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 7
(2017) over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 3
(2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
Pipelines: 394 km gas, 20 km oil, 361 km refined products (2013)
Railways: total 947 km
(2014)
narrow gauge: 947 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 109,515 km
(2009) paved: 13,787 km (2009)
unpaved: 95,728 km (2009)
Waterways: 1,293 km (168 km for launches and lighters on Volta, Ankobra, and Tano Rivers; 1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways on Lake Volta) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 44

by type: general cargo 6, oil tanker 2, other 36 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Takoradi, Tema
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 Military
Military branches: Ghana Army, Ghana Navy, Ghana Air Force (2012)
Military service age and obligation: 18-26 years of age for voluntary military service, with basic education certificate; no conscription; must be HIV/AIDS negative (2012)
Military expenditures: 0.4% of GDP (2017) 0.38% of GDP (2016) 0.52% of GDP (2015) 0.68% of GDP (2014) 0.53% of GDP (2013)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: disputed maritime border between Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 6,609 (Cote d'Ivoire) (flight from 2010 post-election fighting) (2019) IDPs: 5,000 (land disputes between ethnic communities in the north in 2018) (2018)
Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; major transit hub for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and, to a lesser extent, South American cocaine destined for Europe and the US; widespread crime and money-laundering problem, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center; significant domestic cocaine and cannabis use
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