Equatorial Guinea Population: 797,457

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 History
Equatorial Guinea gained independence in 1968 after 190 years of Spanish rule; it is one of the smallest countries in Africa consisting of a mainland territory and five inhabited islands. The capital of Malabo is located on the island of Bioko, approximately 25 km from the Cameroonian coastline in the Gulf of Guinea. Between 1968 and 1979, autocratic President Francisco MACIAS NGUEMA virtually destroyed all of the country's political, economic, and social institutions before being deposed by his nephew Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO in a coup. President OBIANG has ruled since October 1979. He has been elected several times since 1996, and was most recently reelected in 2016. Although nominally a constitutional democracy since 1991, presidential and legislative elections since 1996 have generally been labeled as flawed. The president exerts almost total control over the political system and has placed legal and bureaucratic barriers that hinder political opposition. Equatorial Guinea has experienced rapid economic growth due to the discovery of large offshore oil reserves, and in the last decade had become Sub-Saharan Africa's third largest oil exporter, though in 2018 it slipped to 5th place. Despite the country's economic windfall from oil production, resulting in a massive increase in government revenue in recent years, the drop in global oil prices has placed significant strain on the state budget. The country has been in recession since 2014. Oil revenues have mainly been used for the development of infrastructure and there have been limited improvements in the population's living standards. Equatorial Guinea continues to seek to diversify its economy and to increase foreign investment. The country hosts major regional and international conferences and continues to seek a greater role in international affairs, and leadership in the sub-region.

 Geography
    Insular and continental regions widely separated; despite its name, no part of the Equator passes through Equatorial Guinea; the mainland part of the country is located just north of the Equator
Location: Central Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Cameroon and Gabon
Geographic coordinates: 2 00 N, 10 00 E
Area: total: 28,051 sq km
land: 28,051 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Maryland
Land Boundaries: total: 528 km border countries (2): Cameroon 183 km, Gabon 345 km
Coastline: 296 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; always hot, humid
Terrain: coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are volcanic
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, timber, gold, bauxite, diamonds, tantalum, sand and gravel, clay
Land use: agricultural land: 10.1% (2011 est.) arable land: 4.3% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 2.1% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 3.7% (2011 est.) forest: 57.5% (2011 est.)
other: 32.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: n/a
Natural hazards: violent windstorms; flash floods volcanism: Santa Isabel (3,007 m), which last erupted in 1923, is the country's only historically active volcano; Santa Isabel, along with two dormant volcanoes, form Bioko Island in the Gulf of Guinea
Current Environment Issues: deforestation (forests are threatened by agricultural expansion, fires, and grazing); desertification; water pollution (tap water is non-potable); wildlife preservation
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s)
adjective: Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean
Ethnic groups: Fang 85.7%, Bubi 6.5%, Mdowe 3.6%, Annobon 1.6%, Bujeba 1.1%, other 1.4% (1994 census)
Languages: Spanish (official) 67.6%, other (includes Fang, Bubi, Portuguese (official), French (official)) 32.4% (1994 census)
Religions: nominally Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic, Muslim, Baha'i, animist, indigenous
Population: 797,457 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 39.46% (male 159,814 /female 154,860)
15-24 years: 19.8% (male 80,368 /female 77,515)
25-54 years: 32.34% (male 129,248 /female 128,664)
55-64 years: 4.46% (male 15,428 /female 20,176)
65 years and over: 3.94% (male 13,000 /female 18,384) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 67.5 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 62.7 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 4.8 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 20.6 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 19.9 years
male: 19.5 years
female: 20.4 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.41% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 31.7 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 7.6 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 72.1% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 4.28% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 297,000 MALABO (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.76 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 342 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 63.3 deaths/1,000 live births male: 64.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 62.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 65 years male: 63.8 years
female: 66.2 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.29 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 12.6% (2011)
Physicians density: 0.4 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density: 2.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 72.5% of population
rural: 31.5% of population
total: 47.9% of population

unimproved:
urban: 27.5% of population
rural: 68.5% of population
total: 52.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 79.9% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 71% of population (2015 est.)
total: 74.5% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 20.1% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 29% of population (2015 est.)
total: 25.5% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 6.5% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 53,000 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,900 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 8% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 5.6% (2011)
Education expenditures: n/a
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
total population: 95.3%
male: 97.4%
female: 93% (2015 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Equatorial Guinea
conventional short form: Equatorial Guinea
local long form: Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial/Republique de Guinee Equatoriale
local short form: Guinea Ecuatorial/Guinee Equatoriale
former: Spanish Guinea
etymology: the country is named for the Guinea region of West Africa that lies along the Gulf of Guinea and stretches north to the Sahel; the "equatorial" refers to the fact that the country lies just north of the Equator
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Malabo; note - a new capital of Oyala is being built on the mainland near Djibloho; Malabo is on the island of Bioko
geographic coordinates: 3 45 N, 8 47 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: named after Malabo Lopelo Melaka (1837–1937), the last king of the Bubi, the ethnic group indigenous to the island of Bioko
Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Annobon, Bioko Norte, Bioko Sur, Centro Sur, Kie-Ntem, Litoral, Wele-Nzas
Independence: 12 October 1968 (from Spain)
National holiday: Independence Day, 12 October (1968)
Constitution: history: previous 1968, 1973, 1982; approved by referendum 17 November 1991 amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or supported by three-fourths of the membership in either house of the National Assembly; passage requires three-fourths majority vote by both houses of the Assembly and approval in a referendum if requested by the president; amended several times, last in 2012 (2017)
Legal system: mixed system of civil and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG Nguema Mbasogo (since 3 August 1979 when he seized power in a military coup); Vice President Teodoro OBIANG Nguema Mangue(since 2012)

head of government: Prime Minister Francisco Pascual Eyegue OBAMA Asue (since 23 June 2016); First Deputy Prime Minister Clemente Engonga NGUEMA Onguene (since 23 June 2016); Second Deputy Prime Minister Angel MESIE Mibuy (since 5 February 2018); Third Deputy Prime Minister Alfonso Nsue MOKUY (since 23 June 2016)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and overseen by the prime minister elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 April 2016 (next to be held in 2023); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president

election results: Teodoro OBIANG Nguema Mbasogo reelected president; percent of vote - Teodoro OBIANG Nguema Mbasogo (PDGE) 93.5%, other 6.5%
Legislative branch: description: bicameral National Assembly or Asemblea Nacional consists of: Senate or Senado (70 seats; 55 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed party-list proportional representation vote and 15 appointed by the president) Chamber of Deputies or Camara de los Diputados (100 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed paryt-list proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held on 12 November 2017 (next to be held in 2022/2023) Chamber of Deputies - last held on 12 November 2017 (next to be held in 2022/2023)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDGE and aligned coalition 70; composition - men 60, women 10, percent of women 14.3% Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDGE 99, CI 1; composition - men 78, women 22, percent of women 22%; note - total National Assembly percent of women 18.8%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice (consists of the chief justice - who is also chief of state - and 9 judges  organized into civil, criminal, commercial, labor, administrative, and customary sections); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president and 4 members) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president for 5-year terms; Constitutional Court members appointed by the president, 2 of which are nominated by the Chamber of Deputies; note - judges subject to dismissal by the president at any time

subordinate courts: Court of Guarantees; military courts; Courts of Appeal; first instance tribunals; district and county tribunals
Political parties and leaders: Citizens for Innovation or CI [Gabriel Nse Obiang OBONO] Convergence Party for Social Democracy or CPDS [Andres ESONO ONDO] Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea or PDGE [Teodoro Obiang NGUEMA MBASOGO] Electoral Coalition or EC Juntos Podemos (coalition includes CPDS, FDR, UDC) National Congress of Equatorial Guinea [Agustin MASOKO ABEGUE] National Democratic Party [Benedicto OBIANG MANGUE] National Union for Democracy [Thomas MBA MONABANG] Popular Action of Equatorial Guinea or APGE [Carmelo MBA BACALE] Popular Union or UP [Daniel MARTINEZ AYECABA] Union for the Center right or UDC [Avelino MOCACHE MEHENGA] not officially registered parties: Democratic Republican Force or FDR [Guillermo NGUEMA ELA] Party for Progress of Equatorial Guinea or PPGE [Severo MOTO]
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, CPLP (associate), FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UN Security Council (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO (observer)
National symbol(s): silk cotton tree;
national colors: green, white, red, blue
National anthem: name: "Caminemos pisando la senda" (Let Us Tread the Path)
lyrics/music: Atanasio Ndongo MIYONO/Atanasio Ndongo MIYONO or Ramiro Sanchez LOPEZ (disputed)

note: adopted 1968
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Miguel Ntutumu EVUNA ANDEME (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 2020 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 518-5700
FAX: [1] (202) 518-5252
consulate(s) general: Houston
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Susan N. STEVENSON (since 7 May 2019)
embassy: Carretera Malabo II, Malabo, Guinea Ecuatorial
mailing address: US Embassy Malabo, 2320 Malabo Place, Washington, DC 20521-2520
telephone: [240] 333 09 57 41 or 1-301-985-8750
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 Economy
Exploitation of oil and gas deposits, beginning in the 1990s, has driven economic growth in Equatorial Guinea; a recent rebasing of GDP resulted in an upward revision of the size of the economy by approximately 30%. Forestry and farming are minor components of GDP. Although preindependence Equatorial Guinea counted on cocoa production for hard currency earnings, the neglect of the rural economy since independence has diminished the potential for agriculture-led growth. Subsistence farming is the dominant form of livelihood. Declining revenue from hydrocarbon production, high levels of infrastructure expenditures, lack of economic diversification, and corruption have pushed the economy into decline in recent years and limited improvements in the general population’s living conditions. Equatorial Guinea’s real GDP growth has been weak in recent years, averaging -0.5% per year from 2010 to 2014, because of a declining hydrocarbon sector. Inflation remained very low in 2016, down from an average of 4% in 2014. As a middle income country, Equatorial Guinea is now ineligible for most low-income World Bank and the IMF funding. The government has been widely criticized for its lack of transparency and misuse of oil revenues and has attempted to address this issue by working toward compliance with the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative. US foreign assistance to Equatorial Guinea is limited in part because of US restrictions pursuant to the Trafficking Victims Protection Act. Equatorial Guinea hosted two economic diversification symposia in 2014 that focused on attracting investment in five sectors: agriculture and animal ranching, fishing, mining and petrochemicals, tourism, and financial services. Undeveloped mineral resources include gold, zinc, diamonds, columbite-tantalite, and other base metals. In 2017 Equatorial Guinea signed a preliminary agreement with Ghana to sell liquefied natural gas (LNG); as oil production wanes, the government believes LNG could provide a boost to revenues, but it will require large investments and long lead times to develop.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $31.52 billion (2017 est.) $32.57 billion (2016 est.) $35.62 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $12.49 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -3.2% (2017 est.) -8.6% (2016 est.) -9.1% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $37,400 (2017 est.) $39,700 (2016 est.) $44,600 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 6.1% of GDP (2017 est.) 3.6% of GDP (2016 est.) 8.5% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 50% (2017 est.) government consumption: 21.8% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 10.2% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 0.1% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 56.9% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -39% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 2.5% (2017 est.) industry: 54.6% (2017 est.) services: 42.9% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: coffee, cocoa, rice, yams, cassava (manioc, tapioca), bananas, palm oil nuts; livestock; timber
Industries: petroleum, natural gas, sawmilling
Industrial production growth rate: -6.9% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 195,200 (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate: 8.6% (2014 est.) 22.3% (2009 est.)
Population below poverty line: 44% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: n/a
highest 10%: n/a
Budget: revenues: 2.114 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 2.523 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 16.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -3.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 37.4% of GDP (2017 est.) 43.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.7% (2017 est.) 1.4% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: -$738 million (2017 est.) -$1.457 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $6.118 billion (2017 est.) $5.042 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: petroleum products, timber
Exports - partners: China 28%, India 11.8%, South Korea 10.3%, Portugal 8.7%, US 6.9%, Spain 4.9% (2017)
Imports: $2.577 billion (2017 est.) $2.915 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: petroleum sector equipment, other equipment, construction materials, vehicles
Imports - partners: Spain 20.5%, China 19.4%, US 13%, Cote dIvoire 6.2%, Netherlands 4.7% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $45.5 million (31 December 2017 est.) $62.31 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $1.211 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $1.074 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: (31 December 2009 est.)
Exchange rates: Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar - 605.3 (2017 est.) 593.01 (2016 est.) 593.01 (2015 est.) 591.45 (2014 est.) 494.42 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 500 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 465 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 331,000 kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 61% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 38% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 188,300 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 308,700 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 1.1 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 5,200 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 5,094 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 6.069 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 1.189 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 4.878 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 36.81 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 3.062 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 575,650
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 74 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: digital fixed-line network in most major urban areas and decent mobile cellular coverage; 3G technology has allowed for estimated growth of 9.5% during 2016 -2021; mobile data will be the fastest-growing segment 2016-2021 (2018)

domestic: fixed-line density is about 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has been increasing and in 2016 stood at about 70 percent (2018)

international: country code - 240; international communications from Bata and Malabo to African and European countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
Broadcast media: the state maintains control of broadcast media with domestic broadcast media limited to 1 state-owned TV station, 1 private TV station owned by the president's eldest son (who is the Vice President), 1 state-owned radio station, and 1 private radio station owned by the president's eldest son; satellite TV service is available; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are generally accessible (2019)
Internet country code: .gq
Internet users: total: 180,597
percent of population: 23.8% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 7 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 6
(2017) over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2017)
under 914 m: 2 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 1
(2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: 42 km condensate, 5 km condensate/gas, 79 km gas, 71 km oil (2013)
Roadways: total 2,880 km
(2017)
Merchant marine: total 38

by type: container ship 1, general cargo 7, oil tanker 6, other 24 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Bata, Luba, Malabo LNG terminal(s) (export): Bioko Island
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 Military
Military branches: Equatorial Guinea Armed Forces (FAGE): Equatorial Guinea National Guard (Guardia Nacional de Guinea Ecuatorial, GNGE (Army), Navy, Air Force (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for selective compulsory military service, although conscription is rare in practice; 2-year service obligation; women hold only administrative positions in the Navy (2013)
Military expenditures: 0.18% of GDP (2016) 0.78% of GDP (2014)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: in 2002, ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but a dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River and imprecisely defined maritime coordinates in the ICJ decision delayed final delimitation; UN urged Equatorial Guinea and Gabon to resolve the sovereignty dispute over Gabon-occupied Mbane and lesser islands and to create a maritime boundary in the hydrocarbon-rich Corisco Bay
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