Madagascar Population: 24,430,325


« Previous Country | Next Country »   Back to Flag Counter Overview
Madagascar was one of the last major landmasses on earth to be colonized by humans. The earliest settlers from present-day Indonesia arrived between A.D. 350 and 550. The island attracted Arab and Persian traders as early as the 7th century, and migrants from Africa arrived around A.D. 1000. Madagascar was a pirate stronghold during the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and served as a slave trading center into the 19th century. From the 16th to the late 19th century, a native Merina Kingdom dominated much of Madagascar. The island was conquered by the French in 1896 who made it a colony; independence was regained in 1960. During 1992-93, free presidential and National Assembly elections were held ending 17 years of single-party rule. In 1997, in the second presidential race, Didier RATSIRAKA, the leader during the 1970s and 1980s, was returned to the presidency. The 2001 presidential election was contested between the followers of Didier RATSIRAKA and Marc RAVALOMANANA, nearly causing secession of half of the country. In April 2002, the High Constitutional Court announced RAVALOMANANA the winner. RAVALOMANANA won a second term in 2006 but, following protests in 2009, handed over power to the military, which then conferred the presidency on the mayor of Antananarivo, Andry RAJOELINA, in what amounted to a coup d'etat. Following a lengthy mediation process led by the Southern African Development Community, Madagascar held UN-supported presidential and parliamentary elections in 2013. Former de facto finance minister Hery RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA won a runoff election in December 2013 and was inaugurated in January 2014.

World's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel
Location: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Mozambique
Geographic coordinates: 20 00 S, 47 00 E
Area: total: 587,041 sq km
land: 581,540 sq km
water: 5,501 sq km

Size comparison: slightly less than twice the size of Arizona
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 4,828 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or 100 nm from the 2,500-m isobath
Climate: tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south
Terrain: narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, rare earth elements, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish, hydropower
Land use: agricultural land: 71.1% arable land 6%; permanent crops 1%; permanent pasture 64.1% forest: 21.5%
other: 7.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 10,860 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: periodic cyclones; drought; and locust infestation volcanism: Madagascar's volcanoes have not erupted in historical times
Current Environment Issues: soil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw sewage and other organic wastes; several endangered species of flora and fauna unique to the island
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
^Back to Top
Nationality: noun: Malagasy (singular and plural)
adjective: Malagasy
Ethnic groups: Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran
Languages: French (official), Malagasy (official), English
Religions: Christian, indigenous religionist, Muslim
Population: 24,430,325 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 40.17% (male 4,947,260/female 4,865,379)
15-24 years: 20.44% (male 2,503,395/female 2,489,482)
25-54 years: 31.83% (male 3,889,063/female 3,887,633)
55-64 years: 4.31% (male 511,336/female 540,868)
65 years and over: 3.26% (male 360,520/female 435,389) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 80.3
youth dependency ratio: 75.2
elderly dependency ratio: 5.1
potential support ratio: 19.5 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 19.5 years
male: 19.3 years
female: 19.7 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.54% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 32.1 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 6.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 35.1% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.69% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: ANTANANARIVO (capital) 2.61 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 19.5 years note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2008/09 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 353 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 42.4 deaths/1,000 live births male: 46.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 38.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 65.9 years male: 64.4 years
female: 67.4 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.12 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 39.9% (2008/09)
Health expenditures: 3% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 0.14 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density: 0.2 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 81.6% of population
rural: 35.3% of population
total: 51.5% of population

urban: 18.4% of population
rural: 64.7% of population
total: 48.5% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 18% of population
rural: 8.7% of population
total: 12% of population

urban: 82% of population
rural: 91.3% of population
total: 88% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.36% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 47,900 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 3,200 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 4.6% (2014)
Education expenditures: 2.1% of GDP (2013)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 64.7%
male: 66.7%
female: 62.6% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 11 years male: 11 years
female: 10 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 2.6% male: 2.2%
female: 3% (2012 est.)
^Back to Top
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Madagascar
conventional short form: Madagascar
local long form: Republique de Madagascar/Repoblikan'i Madagasikara
local short form: Madagascar/Madagasikara
former: Malagasy Republic
etymology: the name "Madageiscar" was first used by the 13th-century Venetian explorer Marco POLO, as a corrupted transliteration of Mogadishu, the Somali port with which POLO confused the island
Government type: semi-presidential republic
Capital: name: Antananarivo
geographic coordinates: 18 55 S, 47 31 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 6 provinces (faritany); Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara
Independence: 26 June 1960 (from France)
National holiday: Independence Day, 26 June (1960)
Constitution: previous 1992; latest passed by referendum 17 November 2010, promulgated 11 December 2010 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system based on the old French civil code and customary law in matters of marriage, family, and obligation
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Hery Martial RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA Rakotoarimana (since 25 January 2014)

head of government: Prime Minister Olivier Mahafaly SOLONANDRASANA (since 13 April 2016); Prime Minister Jean RAVELONARIVO (since 17 January 2015) resigned 8 April 2016

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 December 2013 (next to be held in 2018); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly, appointed by the president

election results: Hery Martial RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA elected president; percent of vote in second round - Hery Martial RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA (FIDO) 53.5%, Jean Louis ROBINSON (AVANA) 46.5%

note: on 17 March 2009, democratically elected President Marc RAVALOMANANA stepped down, handing the government over to the military, which in turn conferred the presidency on opposition leader and Antananarivo mayor Andry RAJOELINA; a power-sharing agreement established a 15-month transition period to conclude with a general election in 2010, which failed to occur; a subsequent agreement aimed for an early 2013 election - the first round was held on 25 October 2013 and the second on 20 December 2013
Legislative branch: description: bicameral; consists of the Senate or Antenimieran-Doholona (dissolved following the 2009 coup and reestablished in December 2015) (63 seats; 42 members indirectly elected by an electoral college of municipal, communal, regional, and provincial leaders and 21 appointed by the president of the republic; members serve 6-year terms)and the National Assembly or Antenimierampirenena (151 seats; 87 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 64 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed-list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: National Assembly - last held on 20 December 2013 (next to be held in 2017); Senate - last held 29 December 2015 (next to be held in 2021)

election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - MAPAR 17.3%, MR 10.8%, VPM MMM 8.2%, PHI 3.8%, AMHM 3.5%, LF 2.8%, FFF 1.6%, AIM 1.0%, SFN 0.3%, independent and other 50.6%; seats by party - MAPAR 49, MR 20, VPM MMM 13, PHI 5, AMHM 2, LF 5, FFF 2, AIM 2, SFN 2, other 22, independent 25, seats with delayed elections 4; Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - TIM 3, MAPAR 2, LEADER-FANILO 1, independents 2; appointed by the President 21
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 11 members; addresses judicial administration issues only); High Constitutional Court or Haute Cour Constitutionnelle (consists of 9 members); note - the judiciary includes a High Court of Justice responsible for adjudicating crimes and misdemeanors by government officials including the president judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court heads elected by the president and judiciary officials to serve single-renewable, 3-year terms; High Constitutional Court members appointed - 3 each by the president, by both legislative bodies, and by the Council of Magistrates; members serve single, 6-year terms

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; provincial and city tribunals
Political parties and leaders: AVANA Party [Jean-Louis ROBINSON] Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for National Recovery/LEADER Fanilo [Manasse ESOAVELOMANDROSO] Green Party/Parti Vert or AMHM [Sarah Georget RABEHARISOA] National Unity, Freedom, and Development or FFF [Benjamin RADAVIDSON Andriamparany] New Forces for Madagascar or Hery Vaovao ho an'i Madagaskara (HVM} [Hery RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA] Parti Hiaraka Isika or PHI [Albert Camille VITAL] With the President Andry RAJOELIN or Miaraka Amin'ny Prezida Andry Rajoelina (MAPAR} [Andry RAJOELINA] Pillar of Madagascar or AIM [Andry RAKOTOVAO] I Love Madagascar or Tiako I Madagaskara (TIM} [Marc RAVALOMANANA] Sambo Fiaran'i Noe or SFN Union Party or Tambatra [Pety RAKOTONIAINA] Vondrona Politika Miara dia Malagasy Miara Miainga or VPM MMM [Milavonjy ANDRIASY]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Committee for the Defense of Truth and Justice or KMMR Committee for National Reconciliation or CRN [Albert ZAFY] National Council of Christian Churches or FFKM
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, COMESA, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): traveller's palm, zebu; national colors: red, green, white
National anthem: name: "Ry Tanindraza nay malala o" (Oh, Our Beloved Fatherland)
lyrics/music: Pasteur RAHAJASON/Norbert RAHARISOA

note: adopted 1959
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Velotiana Rakotoanosy RAOBELINA (since 20 June 2011)
chancery: 2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-5525 through 5526
FAX: [1] (202) 265-3034
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Robert T. YAMATE (since 13 January 2015); note - also accredited to Comoros
embassy: Lot 207A, Point Liberty, Andranoro, Antehiroka, 105 Antananarivo
mailing address: B.P. 620, Antsahavola, Antananarivo
telephone: [261] 20 23 480 00
FAX: [261] 20 23 480 35 or [261] 33 44 328 17
^Back to Top
Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is a mainstay of the economy, accounting for more than one-fourth of GDP and employing roughly 80% of the population. Deforestation and erosion, aggravated by the use of firewood as the primary source of fuel, are serious concerns. After discarding socialist economic policies in the mid-1990s, Madagascar followed a World Bank- and IMF-led policy of privatization and liberalization until the onset of a political crisis, which lasted from 2009 to 2013. The free market strategy had placed the country on a slow and steady growth path from an extremely low starting point. Exports of apparel boomed after gaining duty-free access to the US in 2000; however, Madagascar's failure to comply with the requirements of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) led to the termination of the country's duty-free access in January 2010, a sharp fall in textile production, and a loss of more than 100,000 jobs. Madagascar regained AGOA access in January 2015 following the democratic election of a new president the previous year. In November 2015, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) approved a Rapid Credit Facility to Madagascar worth about $42.1 million to help the government meet its balance of payments needs. The IMF also approved a staff monitoring program to guide policy implementation and indicated that Madagascar must demonstrate the capability to sustain reforms to qualify for future requests for a credit facility.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $37.49 billion (2016 est.) $36 billion (2015 est.) $34.91 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $9.74 billion (2016 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.1% (2016 est.) 3.1% (2015 est.) 3.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,500 (2016 est.) $1,500 (2015 est.) $1,500 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 13% of GDP (2016 est.) 11.2% of GDP (2015 est.) 15.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 82.8%
government consumption: 12.9%
investment in fixed capital: 15.8%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 31.3%
imports of goods and services: -42.8% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 82.8%
government consumption: 12.9%
investment in fixed capital: 15.8%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 31.3%
imports of goods and services: -42.8% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava (manioc, tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock products
Industries: meat processing, seafood, soap, beer, leather, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum, tourism, mining
Industrial production growth rate: 3.7% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 12.98 million (2016 est.)
Unemployment rate: NA% (2015 est.) 3.6% (2014 est.)
Population below poverty line: 75.3% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.2%
highest 10%: 34.7% (2010 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 47.5 (2001) 38.1 (1999)
Budget: revenues: $1.171 billion
expenditures: $1.616 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 12% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.2% (2016 est.) 7.4% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$223 million (2016 est.) -$186 million (2015 est.)
Exports: $2.266 billion (2016 est.) $2.238 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: coffee, vanilla, shellfish, sugar, cotton cloth, clothing, chromite, petroleum products
Exports - partners: France 15.2%, US 12.7%, China 7.1%, South Africa 5.6%, Japan 5.5%, Netherlands 5.3%, India 5.1%, Germany 5.1%, Belgium 5% (2015)
Imports: $2.717 billion (2016 est.) $2.683 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: capital goods, petroleum, consumer goods, food
Imports - partners: China 24.8%, France 10.4%, Bahrain 5.6%, India 5.6%, Kuwait 4.5%, Mauritius 4.5%, South Africa 4% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $780.4 million (31 December 2016 est.) $832 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $4.007 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $3.332 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Malagasy ariary (MGA) per US dollar - 3,243.4 (2016 est.) 2,933.5 (2015 est.) 2,933.5 (2014 est.) 2,414.8 (2013 est.) 2,195 (2012 est.)
^Back to Top
Electricity - production: 1.4 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 1.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: m 500,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 69.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 30.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 15,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 15,230 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 2.01 billion cu m (1 January 2012 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 3 million Mt (2013 est.)
^Back to Top
Cellular Phones in use: total: 11.152 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 47 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: system is above average for the region; competition among the three mobile service providers has spurred recent growth in the mobile market

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity about 45 per 100 persons

international: country code - 261; landing point for the EASSy, SEACOM, and LION fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intelsat - Indian Ocean, 1 Intersputnik - Atlantic Ocean region) (2015)
Broadcast media: state-owned Radio Nationale Malagasy (RNM) and Television Malagasy (TVM) have an extensive national network reach; privately owned radio and TV broadcasters in cities and major towns; state-run radio dominates in rural areas; relays of 2 international broadcasters are available in Antananarivo (2007)
Internet country code: .mg
Internet users: total: 994,000 percent of population: 4.2% (July 2015 est.)
^Back to Top
Airports: 83 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 26
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 16
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 57

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 38
under 914 m: 18 (2013)
Railways: total 836 km

narrow gauge: 836 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 37,476 km
paved: 6,103 km
unpaved: 31,373 km (2010)
Waterways: 600 km (432 km navigable) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 1

by type: cargo 1

registered in other countries: 1 (unknown 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Antsiranana (Diego Suarez), Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara (Tulear)
^Back to Top
Military branches: People's Armed Forces: Intervention Force, Development Force, Navy, Air Force
Military service age and obligation: 18-25 years of age for male-only mix of voluntary and conscripted military service; women are not conscripted but can volunteer for all services except the Navy; service obligation is 18 months for military or equivalent civil service; 20-30 years of age for National Gendarmerie recruits and 35 years of age for those with military experience (2017)
Military expenditures: 0.59% of GDP (2016) 0.6% of GDP (2015) 0.65% of GDP (2014) 0.68% of GDP (2013) 0.69% of GDP (2012)
^Back to Top
 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, and Juan de Nova Island (all administered by France); the vegetated drying cays of Banc du Geyser, which were claimed by Madagascar in 1976, also fall within the EEZ claims of the Comoros and France (Glorioso Islands, part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands)
Refugees and internally displaced persons: IDPs: 246,842 (cyclone in 2017) (2017)
Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption; transshipment point for heroin
^Back to Top

« Previous Country | Next Country »   Back to Flag Counter Overview

   Source: CIA - The World Factbook

Flag Counter