Mexico Population: 123,166,749


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The site of several advanced Amerindian civilizations - including the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya, and Aztec - Mexico was conquered and colonized by Spain in the early 16th century. Administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain for three centuries, it achieved independence early in the 19th century. Elections held in 2000 marked the first time since the 1910 Mexican Revolution that an opposition candidate - Vicente FOX of the National Action Party (PAN) - defeated the party in government, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). He was succeeded in 2006 by another PAN candidate Felipe CALDERON, but Enrique PENA NIETO regained the presidency for the PRI in 2012. The global financial crisis in late 2008 caused a massive economic downturn in Mexico the following year, although growth returned quickly in 2010. Ongoing economic and social concerns include low real wages, high underemployment, inequitable income distribution, and few advancement opportunities for the largely indigenous population in the impoverished southern states. Since 2007, Mexico's powerful drug-trafficking organizations have engaged in bloody feuding, resulting in tens of thousands of drug-related homicides.

Strategic location on southern border of US; corn (maize), one of the world's major grain crops, is thought to have originated in Mexico
Location: North America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, between Belize and the United States and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and the United States
Geographic coordinates: 23 00 N, 102 00 W
Area: total: 1,964,375 sq km
land: 1,943,945 sq km
water: 20,430 sq km

Size comparison: slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Land Boundaries: total: 4,389 km border countries (3): Belize 276 km, Guatemala 958 km, US 3,155 km
Coastline: 9,330 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate: varies from tropical to desert
Terrain: high, rugged mountains; low coastal plains; high plateaus; desert
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: petroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber
Land use: agricultural land: 54.9% arable land 11.8%; permanent crops 1.4%; permanent pasture 41.7% forest: 33.3%
other: 11.8% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 65,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: tsunamis along the Pacific coast, volcanoes and destructive earthquakes in the center and south, and hurricanes on the Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean coasts volcanism: volcanic activity in the central-southern part of the country; the volcanoes in Baja California are mostly dormant; Colima (elev. 3,850 m), which erupted in 2010, is Mexico's most active volcano and is responsible for causing periodic evacuations of nearby villagers; it has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Popocatepetl (elev. 5,426 m) poses a threat to Mexico City; other historically active volcanoes include Barcena, Ceboruco, El Chichon, Michoacan-Guanajuato, Pico de Orizaba, San Martin, Socorro, and Tacana
Current Environment Issues: scarcity of hazardous waste disposal facilities; rural to urban migration; natural freshwater resources scarce and polluted in north, inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast; raw sewage and industrial effluents polluting rivers in urban areas; deforestation; widespread erosion; desertification; deteriorating agricultural lands; serious air and water pollution in the national capital and urban centers along US-Mexico border; land subsidence in Valley of Mexico caused by groundwater depletion note: the government considers the lack of clean water and deforestation national security issues
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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Nationality: noun: Mexican(s)
adjective: Mexican
Ethnic groups: mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 62%, predominantly Amerindian 21%, Amerindian 7%, other 10% (mostly European) note: Mexico does not collect census data on ethnicity (2012 est.)
Languages: Spanish only 92.7%, Spanish and indigenous languages 5.7%, indigenous only 0.8%, unspecified 0.8% note: indigenous languages include various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional languages (2005)
Religions: Roman Catholic 82.7%, Pentecostal 1.6%, Jehovah's Witness 1.4%, other Evangelical Churches 5%, other 1.9%, none 4.7%, unspecified 2.7% (2010 est.)
Population: 123,166,749 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 27.26% (male 17,167,636/female 16,402,301)
15-24 years: 17.72% (male 11,049,818/female 10,770,843)
25-54 years: 40.69% (male 24,174,900/female 25,938,909)
55-64 years: 7.41% (male 4,187,644/female 4,944,802)
65 years and over: 6.93% (male 3,827,870/female 4,702,026) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 51.7%
youth dependency ratio: 41.9%
elderly dependency ratio: 9.8%
potential support ratio: 10.2% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 28 years
male: 26.9 years
female: 29.1 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.15% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 18.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 5.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -1.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 79.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.57% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: MEXICO CITY (capital) 20.999 million; Guadalajara 4.843 million; Monterrey 4.513 million; Puebla 2.984 million; Toluca de Lerdo 2.164 million; Tijuana 1.987 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 21.3 (2008 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 38 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 11.9 deaths/1,000 live births male: 13.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.9 years male: 73.1 years
female: 78.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.25 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 72.5% (2009)
Health expenditures: 6.3% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 2.1 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
Hospital bed density: 1.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 97.2% of population
rural: 92.1% of population
total: 96.1% of population

urban: 2.8% of population
rural: 7.9% of population
total: 3.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 88% of population
rural: 74.5% of population
total: 85.2% of population

urban: 12% of population
rural: 25.5% of population
total: 14.8% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.24% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 198,200 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 4,000 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 27.6% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 2.8% (2012)
Education expenditures: 5.2% of GDP (2012)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.1%
male: 96.2%
female: 94.2% (2012 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 13 years male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 9.6% male: 9.2%
female: 10.3% (2014 est.)
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Country name: conventional long form: United Mexican States
conventional short form: Mexico
local long form: Estados Unidos Mexicanos
local short form: Mexico
etymology: named after the Mexica, the largest and most powerful branch of the Aztecs; the meaning of the name is uncertain
Government type: federal presidential republic
Capital: name: Mexico City (Ciudad de Mexico)
geographic coordinates: 19 26 N, 99 08 W
time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in April; ends last Sunday in October

note: Mexico has four time zones
Administrative divisions: 31 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 city* (ciudad); Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila de Zaragoza, Colima, Cuidad de Mexico*, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan de Ocampo, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave (Veracruz), Yucatan, Zacatecas
Independence: 16 September 1810 (declared); 27 September 1821 (recognized by Spain)
National holiday: Independence Day, 16 September (1810)
Constitution: several previous; latest approved 5 February 1917; amended many times, last in 2015 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system with US constitutional law influence; judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: chief of state: President Enrique PENA NIETO (since 1 December 2012); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Enrique PENA NIETO (since 1 December 2012)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; note - appointment of attorney general, the head of the Bank of Mexico, and senior treasury officials require consent of the Senate elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a single 6-year term; election last held on 1 July 2012 (next to be held in July 2018)

election results: Enrique PENA NIETO elected president; percent of vote - Enrique PENA NIETO (PRI) 38.2%, Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR (PRD) 31.6%, Josefina Eugenia VAZQUEZ Mota (PAN) 25.4%, other 4.8%
Legislative branch: description: bicameral National Congress or Congreso de la Union consists of the Senate or Camara de Senadores (128 seats; 96 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 32 directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (500 seats; 300 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 200 directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 3-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held on 1 July 2012 for all of the seats (next to be held 1 July 2018); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 7 June 2015 (next to be held on 1 July 2018)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRI 52, PAN 38, PRD 22, PVEM 9, PT 4, Movimiento Ciudadano 2, PANAL 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRI 203, PAN 108, PRD 56, PVEM 47, MORENA 35, MC 26, PNA/PANAL 10, PES 8, PT 6, independent 1
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nacion (consists of the chief justice and 11 justices and organized into civil, criminal, administrative, and labor panels) and the Electoral Tribunal of the Federal Judiciary (organized into the superior court, with 7 judges including the court president and 5 regional courts, each with 3 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices nominated by the president of the republic and approved by two-thirds vote of the members present in the Senate; justices serve for life; Electoral Tribunal superior and regional court judges nominated by the Supreme Court and elected by two-thirds vote of members present in the Senate; superior court president elected from among its members to hold office for a 4-year term; other judges of the superior and regional courts serve staggered, 9-year terms

subordinate courts: federal level includes circuit, collegiate, and unitary courts; state and district level courts
Political parties and leaders: Citizen's Movement (Movimiento Ciudadano) or MC [Dante DELGADO Rannaoro] Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional) or PRI [Cesar CAMACHO Quiroz] Labor Party (Partido del Trabajo) or PT [Alberto ANAYA Gutierrez] Mexican Green Ecological Party (Partido Verde Ecologista de Mexico) or PVEM [Jorge Emilio GONZALEZ Torres] Movement for National Regeneration (Movimiento Regeneracion Nacional) or MORENA [Marti BATRES] National Action Party (Partido Accion Nacional) or PAN [Gustavo MADERO Munoz] New Alliance Party (Partido Nueva Alianza) or PNA/PANAL [Luis CASTRO Obregon] Party of the Democratic Revolution (Partido de la Revolucion Democratica) or PRD [Jesus ZAMBRANO Grijalva] Social Encounter Party (Partido Encuentro Social) or PES [Hugo Eric FLORES Cervantes]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Businessmen's Coordinating Council or CCE Confederation of Employers of the Mexican Republic or COPARMEX Confederation of Industrial Chambers or CONCAMIN Confederation of Mexican Workers or CTM Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce or CONCANACO Coordinator for Foreign Trade Business Organizations or COECE Federation of Unions Providing Goods and Services or FESEBES National Chamber of Transformation Industries or CANACINTRA National Confederation of Popular Organizations or CNOP National Coordinator for Education Workers or CNTE National Peasant Confederation or CNC National Small Business Chamber or CANACOPE National Syndicate of Education Workers or SNTE National Union of Workers or UNT Popular Assembly of the People of Oaxaca or APPO Roman Catholic Church
International organization participation: APEC, Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), Caricom (observer), CD, CDB, CE (observer), CELAC, CSN (observer), EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-3, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, MIGA, NAFTA, NAM (observer), NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina (observer), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): golden eagle; national colors: green, white, red
National anthem: name: "Himno Nacional Mexicano" (National Anthem of Mexico)
lyrics/music: Francisco Gonzalez BOCANEGRA/Jaime Nuno ROCA

note: adopted 1943, in use since 1854; also known as "Mexicanos, al grito de Guerra" (Mexicans, to the War Cry); according to tradition, Francisco Gonzalez BOCANEGRA, an accomplished poet, was uninterested in submitting lyrics to a national anthem contest; his fiancee locked him in a room and refused to release him until the lyrics were completed
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos Manuel SADA Solana (since 25 May 2016)
chancery: 1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006
telephone: [1] (202) 728-1600
FAX: [1] (202) 728-1698
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Austin, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, El Paso (TX), Houston, Laredo (TX), Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Nogales (AZ), Phoenix, Sacramento (CA), San Antonio (TX), San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose (CA), San Juan (Puerto Rico), Saint Paul (MN) consulate(s): Albuquerque (NM), Anchorage (AK), Boise (ID), Brownsville (TX), Calexico (CA), Del Rio (TX), Detroit, Douglas (AZ), Eagle Pass (TX), Fresno (CA), Indianapolis (IN), Kansas City (MO), Las Vegas (NV), Little Rock (AR), McAllen (TX), Minneapolis (MN), New Orleans, Omaha (NE), Orlando (FL), Oxnard (CA), Philadelphia, Portland (OR), Presidio (TX), Raleigh (NC), Salt Lake City, San Bernardino (CA), Santa Ana (CA), Seattle, Tucson (AZ), Yuma (AZ); note - Washington DC Consular Section is located in a separate building from the Mexican Embassy and has jurisdiction over DC, parts of Virginia, Maryland, and West Virginia
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Roberta JACOBSON (since 20 June 2016)
embassy: Paseo de la Reforma 305, Colonia Cuauhtemoc, 06500 Mexico, Distrito Federal
mailing address: P. O. Box 9000, Brownsville, TX 78520-9000
telephone: [52] (55) 5080-2000
FAX: [52] (55) 5080-2834
consulate(s) general: Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, Hermosillo, Matamoros, Merida, Monterrey, Nogales, Nuevo Laredo, Tijuana
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Mexico's $2.2 trillion economy has become increasingly oriented toward manufacturing in the 22 years since the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) entered into force. Per capita income is roughly one-third that of the US; income distribution remains highly unequal. Mexico has become the US' second-largest export market and third-largest source of imports. In 2014, two-way trade in goods and services exceeded $590 billion. Mexico has free trade agreements with 46 countries, putting more than 90% of trade under free trade agreements. In 2012, Mexico formally joined the Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations and formed the Pacific Alliance with Peru, Colombia, and Chile. Mexico's current government, led by President Enrique PENA NIETO, emphasized economic reforms during its first two years in office, passing and implementing sweeping education, energy, financial, fiscal, and telecommunications reform legislation, among others, with the long-term aim to improve competitiveness and economic growth across the Mexican economy. Mexico began holding public auctions of exploration and development rights to select oil and gas resources in 2015 as a part of reforms that allow for private investment in the oil, gas, and electricity sectors. The second and third auctions demonstrated the capacity for the Mexican Government to adapt and improve the terms of the contracts to garner sufficient interest from investors amid low oil prices. Although the economy experienced stronger growth in 2014-15 as a result of increased investment and stronger demand for Mexican exports, growth is predicted to remain below potential given falling oil production, weak oil prices, structural issues such as low productivity, high inequality, a large informal sector employing over half of the workforce, weak rule of law, and corruption. Over the medium-term, the economy is vulnerable to global economic pressures, such as lower external demand, rising interest rates, and low oil prices - approximately 20% of government revenue comes from the state-owned oil company, PEMEX. The increasing integration of supply chains, development of energy sectors, and government-to-government focus on trade facilitation will continue to make the North American region increasingly competitive and contribute to Mexican economic development and strength.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $2.307 trillion (2016 est.) $2.259 trillion (2015 est.) $2.205 trillion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $1.064 trillion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2.1% (2016 est.) 2.5% (2015 est.) 2.2% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $18,900 (2016 est.) $18,700 (2015 est.) $18,400 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 20.3% of GDP (2016 est.) 19.9% of GDP (2015 est.) 19.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 69.6%
government consumption: 12.3%
investment in fixed capital: 22.6%
investment in inventories: -1.8%
exports of goods and services: 36.1%
imports of goods and services: -38.8% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 69.6%
government consumption: 12.3%
investment in fixed capital: 22.6%
investment in inventories: -1.8%
exports of goods and services: 36.1%
imports of goods and services: -38.8% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: corn, wheat, soybeans, rice, beans, cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; beef, poultry, dairy products; wood products
Industries: food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism
Industrial production growth rate: 3.3% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 53.74 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 13.4%
industry: 24.1%
services: 61.9% (2011)
Unemployment rate: 4.4% (2016 est.) 4.4% (2015 est.) note: underemployment may be as high as 25%
Population below poverty line: 52.3%

note: based on food-based definition of poverty; asset-based poverty amounted to more than 47% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 37.5% (2010)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 48.3 (2008) 53.1 (1998)
Budget: revenues: $224.3 billion
expenditures: $255.9 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 21.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 49.7% of GDP (2016 est.) 46.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.7% (2016 est.) 2.7% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$29.03 billion (2016 est.) -$32.71 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $359.3 billion (2016 est.) $381 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: manufactured goods, oil and oil products, silver, fruits, vegetables, coffee, cotton
Exports - partners: US 81.1% (2015)
Imports: $372.8 billion (2016 est.) $395.6 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: metalworking machines, steel mill products, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment, automobile parts for assembly and repair, aircraft, aircraft parts
Imports - partners: US 47.3%, China 17.7%, Japan 4.4% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $176.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $178 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $484.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $441.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $384.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $356.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $153.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $142.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $402.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $480.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $526 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: Mexican pesos (MXN) per US dollar - 18.34 (2016 est.) 15.848 (2015 est.) 15.848 (2014 est.) 13.292 (2013 est.) 13.17 (2012 est.)
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Electricity - production: 286 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 238 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 7.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 400 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 66 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 74.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 2.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 18.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 4.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 2.302 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 1.199 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 11,110 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 9.7 billion bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 1.258 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 2.007 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 190,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 713,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 44.37 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 72.77 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 52 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 28.84 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 432.9 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 455 million Mt (2013 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total: 106.831 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 88 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: adequate telephone service for business and government; improving quality and increasing mobile cellular availability, with mobile subscribers far outnumbering fixed-line subscribers; domestic satellite system with 120 earth stations; extensive microwave

domestic: competition has spurred the mobile-cellular market; fixed-line teledensity is less than 20 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is about 90 per 100 persons

international: country code - 52; Columbus-2 fiber-optic submarine cable with access to the US, Virgin Islands, Canary Islands, Spain, and Italy; the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the MAYA-1 submarine cable system together provide access to Central (2015)
Broadcast media: many TV stations and more than 1,400 radio stations with most privately owned; the Televisa group once had a virtual monopoly in TV broadcasting, but new broadcasting groups and foreign satellite and cable operators are now available (2012)
Internet country code: .mx
Internet users: total: 69.915 million percent of population: 57.4% (July 2015 est.)
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Airports: 1,714 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 243
over 3,047 m: 12
2,438 to 3,047 m: 32
1,524 to 2,437 m: 80
914 to 1,523 m: 86
under 914 m: 33 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 1,471
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 42
914 to 1,523 m: 281
under 914 m: 1,146 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 18,074 km; liquid petroleum 2,102 km; oil 8,775 km; oil/gas/water 369 km; refined products 7,565 km; water 123 km (2013)
Railways: total 15,389 km
standard gauge: 15,389 km 1.435-m gauge (27 km electrified) (2014)
Roadways: total 377,660 km
paved: 137,544 km (includes 7,176 km of expressways)
unpaved: 240,116 km (2012)
Waterways: 2,900 km (navigable rivers and coastal canals mostly connected with ports on the country's east coast) (2012)
Merchant marine: total 52

by type: bulk carrier 5, cargo 3, chemical tanker 11, liquefied gas 3, passenger/cargo 10, petroleum tanker 17, roll on/roll off 3

foreign-owned: 5 (France 1, Greece 2, South Africa 1, UAE 1)

registered in other countries: 12 (Antigua and Barbuda 1, Marshall Islands 2, Panama 5, Portugal 1, Spain 1, Venezuela 1, unknown 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Altamira, Coatzacoalcos, Lazaro Cardenas, Manzanillo, Veracruz container port(s) (TEUs): Manzanillo (1,992,176), Lazaro Cardenas (1,242,777) (2012)
oil terminals: Cayo Arcas terminal, Dos Bocas terminal LNG terminal(s) (import): Altamira, Ensenada cruise port(s): Cancun, Cozumel, Ensenada
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Military branches: Secretariat of National Defense (Secretaria de Defensa Nacional, Sedena): Army (Ejercito), Mexican Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Mexicana, FAM); Secretariat of the Navy (Secretaria de Marina, Semar): Mexican Navy (Armada de Mexico (ARM); includes Naval Air Force (FAN), Mexican Naval Infantry Corps (Cuerpo de Infanteria de Marina, Mexmar or CIM)) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory military service, conscript service obligation is 12 months; 16 years of age with consent for voluntary enlistment; conscripts serve only in the Army; Navy and Air Force service is all voluntary; women are eligible for voluntary military service; cadets enrolled in military schools from the age of 15 are considered members of the armed forces (2012)
Military expenditures: 0.59% of GDP (2012) 0.56% of GDP (2011) 0.59% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: abundant rainfall in recent years along much of the Mexico-US border region has ameliorated periodically strained water-sharing arrangements; the US has intensified security measures to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, and commodities across its border with Mexico; Mexico must deal with thousands of impoverished Guatemalans and other Central Americans who cross the porous border looking for work in Mexico and the US; Belize and Mexico are working to solve minor border demarcation discrepancies arising from inaccuracies in the 1898 border treaty
Refugees and internally displaced persons: IDPs: 287,000 (government's quashing of Zapatista uprising in 1994 in eastern Chiapas Region; drug cartel violence and government's military response since 2007; violence between and within indigenous groups) (2015)
stateless persons: 13 (2015)
Illicit drugs: major drug-producing and transit nation; world's second largest opium poppy cultivator; opium poppy cultivation in 2009 rose 31% over 2008 to 19,500 hectares yielding a potential production of 50 metric tons of pure heroin, or 125 metric tons of "black tar" heroin, the dominant form of Mexican heroin in the western United States; marijuana cultivation increased 45% to 17,500 hectares in 2009; government conducts the largest independent illicit-crop eradication program in the world; continues as the primary transshipment country for US-bound cocaine from South America, with an estimated 95% of annual cocaine movements toward the US stopping in Mexico; major drug syndicates control the majority of drug trafficking throughout the country; producer and distributor of ecstasy; significant money-laundering center; major supplier of heroin and largest foreign supplier of marijuana and methamphetamine to the US market (2007)
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