Niger Population: 19,866,231

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 History
Niger became independent from France in 1960 and experienced single-party and military rule until 1991, when Gen. Ali SAIBOU was forced by public pressure to allow multiparty elections, which resulted in a democratic government in 1993. Political infighting brought the government to a standstill and in 1996 led to a coup by Col. Ibrahim BARE. In 1999, BARE was killed in a counter coup by military officers who restored democratic rule and held elections that brought Mamadou TANDJA to power in December of that year. TANDJA was reelected in 2004 and in 2009 spearheaded a constitutional amendment allowing him to extend his term as president. In February 2010, military officers led a coup that deposed TANDJA and suspended the constitution. ISSOUFOU Mahamadou was elected in April 2011 following the coup and reelected to a second term in early 2016. Niger is one of the poorest countries in the world with minimal government services and insufficient funds to develop its resource base, and is ranked last in the world on the United Nations Development Programme’s Human Development Index. The largely agrarian and subsistence-based economy is frequently disrupted by extended droughts common to the Sahel region of Africa. The Nigerien Government continues its attempts to diversify the economy through increased oil production and mining projects. A Tuareg rebellion emerged in 2007 and ended in 2009. Niger is facing increased security concerns on its borders from various external threats including insecurity in Libya, spillover from the conflict in Mali, and violent extremism in northeastern Nigeria.

 Geography
    Landlocked; one of the hottest countries in the world; northern four-fifths is desert, southern one-fifth is savanna, suitable for livestock and limited agriculture
Location: Western Africa, southeast of Algeria
Geographic coordinates: 16 00 N, 8 00 E
Area: total: 1.267 million sq km
land: 1,266,700 sq km
water: 300 sq km

Size comparison: slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land Boundaries: total: 5,834 km border countries (7): Algeria 951 km, Benin 277 km, Burkina Faso 622 km, Chad 1196 km, Libya 342 km, Mali 838 km, Nigeria 1608 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south
Terrain: predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to rolling plains in south; hills in north
Natural resources: uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates, gold, molybdenum, gypsum, salt, petroleum
Land use: agricultural land: 35.1% (2011 est.) arable land: 12.3% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 0.1% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 22.7% (2011 est.) forest: 1% (2011 est.)
other: 63.9% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 1,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: recurring droughts
Current Environment Issues: overgrazing; soil erosion; deforestation; desertification; contaminated water; inadequate potable water; wildlife populations (such as elephant, hippopotamus, giraffe, and lion) threatened because of poaching and habitat destruction
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
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 People
Nationality: noun: Nigerien(s)
adjective: Nigerien
Ethnic groups: Hausa 53.1%, Zarma/Songhai 21.2%, Tuareg 11%, Fulani (Peuhl) 6.5%, Kanuri 5.9%, Gurma 0.8%, Arab 0.4%, Tubu 0.4%, other/unavailable 0.9% (2006 est.)
Languages: French (official), Hausa, Djerma
Religions: Muslim 99.3%, Christian .3%, animist .2%, none .1% (2012 est.)
Population: 19,866,231 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 48.68% (male 4,878,031 /female 4,793,021)
15-24 years: 19.36% (male 1,899,879 /female 1,945,806)
25-54 years: 26.02% (male 2,581,597 /female 2,587,913)
55-64 years: 3.3% (male 340,032 /female 315,142)
65 years and over: 2.64% (male 268,072 /female 256,738) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 111.6 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 106.2 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 5.4 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 18.6 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 15.5 years
male: 15.4 years
female: 15.7 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 3.16% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 43.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 11.5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 16.4% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 4.27% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 1.214 million NIAMEY (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 18.1 years (2012 est.) note: median age at first birth among women 25-29
Maternal mortality rate: 553 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 79.4 deaths/1,000 live births male: 83.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 75 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 56.3 years male: 55 years
female: 57.7 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 6.35 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 11% (2018)
Physicians density: 0.05 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 48.6% of population
total: 58.2% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 51.4% of population
total: 41.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 37.9% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 4.6% of population (2015 est.)
total: 10.9% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 62.1% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 95.4% of population (2015 est.)
total: 89.1% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.3% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 36,000 UNAIDS, AIDSinfo Online Database, 2017, 7/31/18 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,800 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 5.5% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 31.4% (2016)
Education expenditures: 3.5% of GDP (2017)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
total population: 19.1%
male: 27.3%
female: 11% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 6 years male: 7 years female: 6 years (2017)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 0.7% male: 0.9% female: 0.4% (2014 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Niger
conventional short form: Niger
local long form: Republique du Niger
local short form: Niger
etymology: named for the Niger River that passes through the southwest of the country; from a native term "Ni Gir" meaning "River Gir" note: pronounced nee-zher
Government type: semi-presidential republic
Capital: name: Niamey
geographic coordinates: 13 31 N, 2 07 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 7 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 capital district* (communaute urbaine); Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey*, Tahoua, Tillaberi, Zinder
Independence: 3 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday: Republic Day, 18 December (1958); note - commemorates the founding of the Republic of Niger which predated independence from France in 1960
Constitution: history: several previous; passed by referendum 31 October 2010, entered into force 25 November 2010 amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by the National Assembly; consideration of amendments requires at least three-fourths majority vote by the Assembly; passage requires at least four-fifths majority vote; if disapproved, the proposed amendment is dropped or submitted to a referendum; constitutional articles on the form of government, the multiparty system, the separation of state and religion, disqualification of Assembly members, amendment procedures, and amnesty of participants in the 2010 coup cannot be amended; amended 2011 (2017)
Legal system: mixed legal system of civil law (based on French civil law), Islamic law, and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President ISSOUFOU Mahamadou (since 7 April 2011)

head of government: Prime Minister Brigi RAFINI (since 7 April 2011)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 February 2016 with a runoff on 20 March 2016 (next to be held in 2021); prime minister appointed by the president, authorized by the National Assembly

election results: ISSOUFOU Mahamadou reelected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - ISSOUFOU Mahamadou (PNDS-Tarrayya) 48.6%, Hama AMADOU (MODEN/FA Lumana Africa) 17.8%, Seini OUMAROU (MNSD-Nassara) 11.3%, other 22.3%; percent of vote in second round - ISSOUFOU Mahamadou 92%, Hama AMADOU 8%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (171 seats; 158 members directly elected from 8 multi-member constituencies in 7 regions and Niamey by party-list proportional representation, 8 reserved for minorities elected in special single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 5 seats reserved for Nigeriens living abroad - l seat per continent - elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - the number of National Assembly seats increased from 113 to 171 in the February 2016 legislative election

elections: last held on 21 February 2016 (next to be held in 2021)

election results: percent of vote by party - PNDS-Tarrayya 44.1%, MODEN/FA Lumana 14.7%, MNSD-Nassara 11.8%, MPR-Jamhuriya 7.1%, MNRD Hankuri-PSDN Alheri 3.5%, MPN-Kishin Kassa 2.9%, ANDP-Zaman Lahiya 2.4%, RSD-Gaskiya 2.4%, CDS-Rahama 1.8%, CPR-Inganci 1.8%, RDP-Jama'a 1.8%, AMEN AMIN 1.8%, other 3.9%; seats by party - PNDS-Tarrayya 75, MODEN/FA Lumana 25, MNSD-Nassara 20, MPR-Jamhuriya 12, MNRD Hankuri-PSDN Alheri 6, MPN-Kishin Kassa 5, ANDP-Zaman Lahiya 4, RSD-Gaskiya 4, CDS-Rahama 3, CPR-Inganci 3, RDP-Jama'a 3, RDP-Jama'a 3, AMEN AMIN 3, other 8; composition - men 146, women 24 percent of women 14.6%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Constitutional Court (consists of 7 judges); High Court of Justice (consists of 7 members) judge selection and term of office: Constitutional Court judges nominated/elected - 1 by the president of the Republic, 1 by the president of the National Assembly, 2 by peer judges, 2 by peer lawyers, 1 law professor by peers, and 1 from within Nigerien society; all appointed by the president; judges serve 6-year nonrenewable terms with one-third of membership renewed every 2 years; High Judicial Court members selected from among the legislature and judiciary; members serve 5-year terms

subordinate courts: Court of Cassation; Council of State; Court of Finances; various specialized tribunals and customary courts
Political parties and leaders: Alliance of Movements for the Emergence of Niger or AMEN AMIN [Omar Hamidou TCHIANA] Congress for the Republic or CPR-Inganci [Kassoum MOCTAR] Democratic Alliance for Niger or ADN-Fusaha [Habi Mahamadou SALISSOU] Democratic and Social Convention-Rahama or CDS-Rahama [Abdou LABO] National Movement for the Development of Society-Nassara or MNSD-Nassara [Seini OUMAROU] Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Progress-Zaman Lahiya or ANDP-Zaman Lahiya [Moussa Moumouni DJERMAKOYE] Nigerien Democratic Movement for an African Federation or MODEN/FA Lumana [Hama AMADOU] Nigerien Movement for Democratic Renewal or MNRD-Hankuri [Mahamane OUSMANE] Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism or PNDS-Tarrayya [Mahamadou ISSOUFOU] Nigerien Patriotic Movement or MPN-Kishin Kassa [Ibrahim YACOUBA] Party for Socialism and Democracy in Niger or PSDN-Alheri Patriotic Movement for the Republic or MPR-Jamhuriya [Albade ABOUBA] Rally for Democracy and Progress-Jama'a or RDP-Jama'a [Hamid ALGABID] Social and Democratic Rally or RSD-Gaskiyya [Amadou CHEIFFOU] Social Democratic Party or PSD-Bassira [Mohamed BEN OMAR] Union for Democracy and the Republic-Tabbat or UDR-Tabbat [Amadou Boubacar CISSE] note: the SPLM and SPLM-DC are banned political parties
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): zebu;
national colors: orange, white, green
National anthem: name: "La Nigerienne" (The Nigerien)
lyrics/music: Maurice Albert THIRIET/Robert JACQUET and Nicolas Abel Francois FRIONNET

note: adopted 1961
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Hassana ALIDOU (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 2204 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-4224 through 4227
FAX: [1] (202) 483-3169
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Eric P. WHITAKER (since 26 January 2018)
embassy: BP 11201, Rue Des Ambassades, Niamey
mailing address: 2420 Niamey Place, Washington DC 20521-2420
telephone: [227] 20-72-26-61
FAX: [227] 20-73-55-60
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 Economy
Niger is a landlocked, sub-Saharan nation, whose economy centers on subsistence crops, livestock, and some of the world's largest uranium deposits. Agriculture contributes approximately 40% of GDP and provides livelihood for over 80% of the population. The UN ranked Niger as the second least developed country in the world in 2016 due to multiple factors such as food insecurity, lack of industry, high population growth, a weak educational sector, and few prospects for work outside of subsistence farming and herding. Since 2011 public debt has increased due to efforts to scale-up public investment, particularly that related to infrastructure, as well as due to increased security spending. The government relies on foreign donor resources for a large portion of its fiscal budget. The economy in recent years has been hurt by terrorist activity near its uranium mines and by instability in Mali and in the Diffa region of the country; concerns about security have resulted in increased support from regional and international partners on defense. Low uranium prices, demographics, and security expenditures may continue to put pressure on the government’s finances. The Government of Niger plans to exploit oil, gold, coal, and other mineral resources to sustain future growth. Although Niger has sizable reserves of oil, the prolonged drop in oil prices has reduced profitability. Food insecurity and drought remain perennial problems for Niger, and the government plans to invest more in irrigation. Niger’s three-year $131 million IMF Extended Credit Facility (ECF) agreement for the years 2012-15 was extended until the end of 2016. In February 2017, the IMF approved a new 3-year $134 million ECF. In June 2017, The World Bank’s International Development Association (IDA) granted Niger $1 billion over three years for IDA18, a program to boost the country’s development and alleviate poverty. A $437 million Millennium Challenge Account compact for Niger, commencing in FY18, will focus on large-scale irrigation infrastructure development and community-based, climate-resilient agriculture, while promoting sustainable increases in agricultural productivity and sales. Formal private sector investment needed for economic diversification and growth remains a challenge, given the country’s limited domestic markets, access to credit, and competitiveness. Although President ISSOUFOU is courting foreign investors, including those from the US, as of April 2017, there were no US firms operating in Niger. In November 2017, the National Assembly passed the 2018 Finance Law that was geared towards raising government revenues and moving away from international support.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $21.86 billion (2017 est.) $20.84 billion (2016 est.) $19.87 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $8.224 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.9% (2017 est.) 4.9% (2016 est.) 4.3% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,200 (2017 est.) $1,100 (2016 est.) $1,100 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 22.4% of GDP (2017 est.) 20.6% of GDP (2016 est.) 21.2% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 70.2% (2017 est.) government consumption: 9.4% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 38.6% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 16.4% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -34.6% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 41.6% (2017 est.) industry: 19.5% (2017 est.) services: 38.7% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: cowpeas, cotton, peanuts, millet, sorghum, cassava (manioc, tapioca), rice; cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys, horses, poultry
Industries: uranium mining, petroleum, cement, brick, soap, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses
Industrial production growth rate: 6% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 6.5 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 79.2%
industry: 3.3%
services: 17.5% (2012 est.)
Unemployment rate: 0.3% (2017 est.) 0.3% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: 45.4% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.2%
highest 10%: 26.8% (2014)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 34 (2014) 50.5 (1995)
Budget: revenues: 1.757 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 2.171 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 21.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 45.3% of GDP (2017 est.) 45.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.4% (2017 est.) 0.2% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: -$1.16 billion (2017 est.) -$1.181 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $4.143 billion (2017 est.) $1.101 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: uranium ore, livestock, cowpeas, onions
Exports - partners: France 30.2%, Thailand 18.3%, Malaysia 9.9%, Nigeria 8.3%, Mali 5%, Switzerland 4.9% (2017)
Imports: $1.829 billion (2017 est.) $1.715 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery, vehicles and parts, petroleum, cereals
Imports - partners: France 28.8%, China 14.4%, Malaysia 5.7%, Nigeria 5.4%, Thailand 5.3%, US 5.1%, India 4.9% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.314 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $1.186 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $3.728 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $2.926 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: n/a
Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 605.3 (2017 est.) 593.01 (2016 est.) 593.01 (2015 est.) 591.45 (2014 est.) 494.42 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 494.7 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 1.065 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 779 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 184,000 kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 95% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 5% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 11,000 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 150 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 15,280 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 14,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 5,422 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 3,799 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2016 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 2.534 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 8,778,884
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 46 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: small system of wire, radio telephone communications, and microwave radio relay links concentrated in southwestern Niger; mobile services stronger than fixed telecoms; broadband penetration inconsequential;  LTE license secured for the future; government tax of telecom sector (2018)

domestic: fixed-line 1 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular teledensity remains 46 per 100 persons despite a rapidly increasing cellular subscribership base; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations and 1 planned (2018)

international: country code - 227; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)
Broadcast media: state-run TV station; 3 private TV stations provide a mix of local and foreign programming; state-run radio has only radio station with national coverage; about 30 private radio stations operate locally; as many as 100 community radio stations broadcast; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available
Internet country code: .ne
Internet users: total: 805,702
percent of population: 4.3% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 30 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 10
(2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 20
(2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 15 (2013)
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: 464 km oil
Roadways: total 18,949 km
(2010) paved: 3,912 km (2010)
unpaved: 15,037 km (2010)
Waterways: 300 km (the Niger, the only major river, is navigable to Gaya between September and March) (2012)
Merchant marine: total 1

by type: other 1 (2018)
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 Military
Military branches: Nigerien Armed Forces (Forces Armees Nigeriennes, FAN): Army, Nigerien Air Force (Force Aerienne du Niger) (2012)
Military service age and obligation: 18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory or voluntary military service; enlistees must be Nigerien citizens and unmarried; 2-year service term; women may serve in health care (2017)
Military expenditures: 4% of GDP (2016) 5.46% of GDP (2015) 3.45% of GDP (2014) 1.06% of GDP (2012) 1.31% of GDP (2011)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Libya claims about 25,000 sq km in a currently dormant dispute in the Tommo region; location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty that also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries; the dispute with Burkina Faso was referred to the ICJ in 2010
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 118,868 (Nigeria), 56,306 (Mali) (2019) IDPs: 174,593 (includes the regions of Diffa, Tillaberi, and Tahoua; unknown how many of the 11,000 people displaced by clashes between government forces and the Tuareg militant group, Niger Movement for Justice, in 2007 are still displaced; inter-communal violence; Boko Haram attacks in southern Niger, 2015) (2019)
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