Seychelles Population: 93,186

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 History
A lengthy struggle between France and Great Britain for the islands ended in 1814, when they were ceded to the latter. Independence came in 1976. Single-party rule was brought to a close with a new constitution and free elections in 1993. President France-Albert RENE, who had served since 1977, was reelected in 2001, but stepped down in 2004. Vice President James Alix MICHEL took over the presidency and in July 2006 was elected to a new five-year term; he was reelected in May 2011 and again in December 2015.

 Geography
Smallest African country; the constitution of the Republic of Seychelles lists 155 islands: 42 granitic and 113 coralline; by far the largest island is Mahe, which is home to about 90% of the population and the site of the capital city of Victoria
Location: archipelago in the Indian Ocean, northeast of Madagascar
Geographic coordinates: 4 35 S, 55 40 E
Area: total: 455 sq km
land: 455 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 491 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate: tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast monsoon (late May to September); warmer season during northwest monsoon (March to May)
Terrain: Mahe Group is volcanic with a narrow coastal strip and rocky, hilly interior; others are coral, flat, elevated reefs
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: fish, coconuts (copra), cinnamon trees
Land use: agricultural land: 6.5% arable land 2.2%; permanent crops 4.3%; permanent pasture 0% forest: 88.5%
other: 5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 3 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: lies outside the cyclone belt, so severe storms are rare; occasional short droughts
Current Environment Issues: water supply depends on catchments to collect rainwater
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Seychellois (singular and plural)
adjective: Seychellois
Ethnic groups: mixed French, African, Indian, Chinese, and Arab
Languages: Seychellois Creole (official) 89.1%, English (official) 5.1%, French (official) 0.7%, other 3.8%, unspecified 1.4% (2010 est.)
Religions: Roman Catholic 76.2%, Protestant 10.6% (Anglican 6.1%, Pentecoastal Assembly 1.5%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.2%, other Protestant 1.6), other Christian 2.4%, Hindu 2.4%, Muslim 1.6%, other non-Christian 1.1%, unspecified 4.8%, none 0.9% (2010 est.)
Population: 93,186 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 20.19% (male 9,650/female 9,164)
15-24 years: 13.58% (male 6,641/female 6,016)
25-54 years: 49.36% (male 24,335/female 21,660)
55-64 years: 9.36% (male 4,483/female 4,235)
65 years and over: 7.51% (male 2,763/female 4,239) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 43.5%
youth dependency ratio: 33.6%
elderly dependency ratio: 9.9%
potential support ratio: 10.1% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 34.9 years
male: 34.4 years
female: 35.5 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.8% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 13.9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 6.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 53.9% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.14% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: VICTORIA (capital) 26,000 (2014)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.12 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 10.2 deaths/1,000 live births male: 12.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.7 years male: 70.2 years
female: 79.4 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.86 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Health expenditures: 3.4% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 1.07 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density: 3.6 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 95.7% of population
rural: 95.7% of population
total: 95.7% of population

unimproved:
urban: 4.3% of population
rural: 4.3% of population
total: 4.3% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 98.4% of population
rural: 98.4% of population
total: 98.4% of population

unimproved:
urban: 1.6% of population
rural: 1.6% of population
total: 1.6% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 26.9% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 3.6% (2012)
Education expenditures: 3.6% of GDP (2011)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91.8%
male: 91.4%
female: 92.3% (2012 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 14 years male: 13 years
female: 15 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 11% male: 8.4%
female: 14.2% (2011 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Seychelles
conventional short form: Seychelles
local long form: Republic of Seychelles
local short form: Seychelles
etymology: named by French Captain Corneille Nicholas MORPHEY after Jean Moreau de SECHELLES, the finance minister of France, in 1756
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Victoria
geographic coordinates: 4 37 S, 55 27 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 25 administrative districts; Anse aux Pins, Anse Boileau, Anse Etoile, Anse Royale, Au Cap, Baie Lazare, Baie Sainte Anne, Beau Vallon, Bel Air, Bel Ombre, Cascade, Glacis, Grand Anse Mahe, Grand Anse Praslin, Inner Islands, La Riviere Anglaise, Les Mamalles, Mont Buxton, Mont Fleuri, Plaisance, Pointe Larue, Port Glaud, Roche Caiman, Saint Louis, Takamaka
Independence: 29 June 1976 (from the UK)
National holiday: Constitution Day, 18 June (1993); Independence Day (National Day), 29 June (1976)
Constitution: previous 1970, 1979; latest drafted May 1993, approved by referendum 18 June 1993, effective 23 June 1993; amended several times, last in 2011 (2016)
Legal system: mixed legal system of English common law, French civil law, and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Danny FAURE (PL) (since 16 October 2016); Vice President Vincent MERITON (since 28 October 2016); note - James Alix MICHEL resigned the presidency effective 16 October 2016; the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Danny FAURE (PL) (since 16 October 2016); Vice President Vincent MERITON (since 28 October 2016); note - James Alix MICHEL resigned the presidency effective 16 October 2016

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in two rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for 2 more terms); election last held on 3-5 December 2015 with runoff on 16-18 December 2015 (next expected in December 2020)

election results: President James Alix MICHEL reelected president; percent of vote in second round - James Alix MICHEL (PP) 50.2%, Wavel RAMKALAWAN (SNP) 49.8%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (up to 35 seats - the Assembly elected in September 2016 has 33 members; 25 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and up to 10 members elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 8-10 September 2016 (next to be held in 2021); note - the National Assembly was dissolved in July 2011 resulting in early elections

election results: percent of vote by party - LDS 49.6%, PL 49.2%, other 1.2%; seats by party - LDS 19, PL 14
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Seychelles Court of Appeal (consists of the court president and 4 justices); Supreme Court of Seychelles (consists of the chief justice and 9 puisine judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 3 Supreme Court judges) judge selection and term of office: all judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the recommendation of the Constitutional Appointments Committee, a 3-member body, with 1 member appointed by the president of the republic, 1 by the opposition leader in the National Assembly, and 1 by the other 2 appointees; judges appointed until retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: Magistrates' Courts of Seychelles; Family Tribunal for issues such as domestic violence, and child custody and maintenance; Employment Tribunal for labor-related disputes
Political parties and leaders: People's Party (Parti Lepep) or PL [James Alix MICHEL] (formerly SPPF) Popular Democratic Movement or PDM [Francesca MONNAIE] Seychelles National Party or SNP [Wavel RAMKALAWAN] (formerly the United Opposition or UO) Seychelles Party for Social Justice and Democracy or SPSD Seychellois Democratic Alliance (Linyon Demokratik Seselwa) or LDS [Roger MANCIENNE] (alliance consisting of SNP, Seychelloise Alliance, SPSD, and SUP) Seychelloise Alliance (Lalyans Seselwa) [Patrick PILLAY] Seselwa (Seychelles) United Party or SUP [Robert ERNESTA] (formerly the New Democratic Party or NDP)
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AOSIS, AU, C, CD, COMESA, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
National symbol(s): coco de mer (sea coconut); national colors: blue, yellow, red, white, green
National anthem: name: "Koste Seselwa" (Seychellois Unite)
lyrics/music: David Francois Marc ANDRE and George Charles Robert PAYET

note: adopted 1996
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Marie-Louise POTTER (since 19 September 2012)
chancery: 800 Second Avenue, Suite 400C, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 972-1785
FAX: [1] (212) 972-1786
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Seychelles; the US Ambassador to Mauritius is accredited to Seychelles
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 Economy
Since independence in 1976, per capita output in this Indian Ocean archipelago has expanded to roughly seven times the pre-independence, near-subsistence level, moving the island into the upper-middle-income group of countries. Growth has been led by the tourist sector, which employs about 30% of the labor force and provides more than 70% of hard currency earnings, and by tuna fishing. In recent years, the government has encouraged foreign investment to upgrade hotels and other services. At the same time, the government has moved to reduce the dependence on tourism by promoting the development of farming, fishing, and small-scale manufacturing. In 2008, having depleted its foreign exchange reserves, Seychelles defaulted on interest payments due on a $230 million Eurobond, requested assistance from the IMF, and immediately enacted a number of significant structural reforms, including liberalization of the exchange rate, reform of the public sector to include layoffs, and the sale of some state assets. In December 2013, the IMF declared that Seychelles had successfully transitioned to a market-based economy with full employment and a fiscal surplus. Seychelles grew at 4.3% in 2015 because of a strong tourist sector and expanding private sector credits; its fiscal surplus reached 4% of GDP.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $2.608 billion (2016 est.) $2.487 billion (2015 est.) $2.352 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $1.419 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.9% (2016 est.) 5.7% (2015 est.) 6.2% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $28,000 (2016 est.) $27,000 (2015 est.) $25,800 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 13.8% of GDP (2016 est.) 15.2% of GDP (2015 est.) 14.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 53.9%
government consumption: 25.2%
investment in fixed capital: 39.5%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 63.4%
imports of goods and services: -82% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 53.9%
government consumption: 25.2%
investment in fixed capital: 39.5%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 63.4%
imports of goods and services: -82% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: coconuts, cinnamon, vanilla, sweet potatoes, cassava (manioc, tapioca), copra, bananas; tuna
Industries: fishing, tourism, beverages
Industrial production growth rate: 2.7% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 39,560 (2006 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 3%
industry: 23%
services: 74% (2006)
Unemployment rate: 3% (2014 est.) 3.3% (2013 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.7%
highest 10%: 15.4% (2007)
Budget: revenues: $487.3 million
expenditures: $457.3 million (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 34.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 59.1% of GDP (2016 est.) 63.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): -0.5% (2016 est.) 4% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$265 million (2016 est.) -$253 million (2015 est.)
Exports: $422.3 million (2016 est.) $449.4 million (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: canned tuna, frozen fish, petroleum products (reexports)
Exports - partners: France 18.2%, UK 17.9%, Mauritius 10%, Japan 9.2%, Italy 7.8%, Spain 4.5% (2015)
Imports: $873.7 million (2016 est.) $922.4 million (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals, other manufactured goods
Imports - partners: Saudi Arabia 22.5%, Spain 11.1%, Singapore 7.4%, China 4.5%, South Africa 4.1%, France 4% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $590.5 million (31 December 2016 est.) $536.2 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $2.552 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $2.758 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Seychelles rupees (SCR) per US dollar - 13.34 (2016 est.) 13.314 (2015 est.) 13.314 (2014 est.) 12.747 (2013 est.) 13.7 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 400 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 300 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 100,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 6,500 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 5,956 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 1.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 148,000 subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 160 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: effective system

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 180 telephones per 100 persons; radiotelephone communications between islands in the archipelago

international: country code - 248; direct radiotelephone communications with adjacent island countries and African coastal countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2015)
Broadcast media: the government operates the only terrestrial TV station, which provides local programming and airs broadcasts from international services; multi-channel cable and satellite TV are available through 2 providers; the government operates 1 AM and 1 FM radio (2016)
Internet country code: .sc
Internet users: total: 54,000 percent of population: 58.1% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 14 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 7

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 7

914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Roadways: total 526 km
paved: 514 km
unpaved: 12 km (2015)
Merchant marine: total 9

by type: cargo 1, carrier 1, chemical tanker 6, petroleum tanker 1

foreign-owned: 3 (Hong Kong 1, Nigeria 1, South Africa 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Victoria
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 Military
Military branches: Seychelles People's Defense Forces (SPDF): Army (includes infantry, Special Forces (Tazar)), Coast Guard (includes Naval Wing, Air Wing) (2015)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service (younger with parental consent); no conscription (2012)
Military expenditures: 0.89% of GDP (2012) 0.82% of GDP (2011) 0.89% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Mauritius and Seychelles claim the Chagos Islands (UK-administered British Indian Ocean Territory)
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