Sweden Population: 10,040,995

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 History
A military power during the 17th century, Sweden has not participated in any war for two centuries. An armed neutrality was preserved in both World Wars. Since then, Sweden has pursued a successful economic formula consisting of a capitalist system intermixed with substantial welfare elements. Sweden joined the EU in 1995, but the public rejected the introduction of the euro in a 2003 referendum. The share of Sweden’s population born abroad increased from 11.3% in 2000 to 19.1% in 2018.

 Geography
    Strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas; Sweden has almost 100,000 lakes, the largest of which, Vanern, is the third largest in Europe
Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway
Geographic coordinates: 62 00 N, 15 00 E
Area: total: 450,295 sq km
land: 410,335 sq km
water: 39,960 sq km

Size comparison: almost three times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than California
Land Boundaries: total: 2,211 km border countries (2): Finland 545 km, Norway 1666 km
Coastline: 3,218 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm (adjustments made to return a portion of straits to high seas)
exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north
Terrain: mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west
Natural resources: iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, tungsten, uranium, arsenic, feldspar, timber, hydropower
Land use: agricultural land: 7.5% (2011 est.) arable land: 6.4% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 1.1% (2011 est.) forest: 68.7% (2011 est.)
other: 23.8% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 1,640 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic
Current Environment Issues: marine pollution (Baltic Sea and North Sea); acid rain damage to soils and lakes; air pollution; inappropriate timber harvesting practices
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Swede(s)
adjective: Swedish
Ethnic groups: Swedish 80.9%, Syrian 1.8%, Finnish 1.4%, Iraqi 1.4%, other 14.5% (2018 est.) note: data represent the population by country of birth; the indigenous Sami people are estimated to number between 20,000 and 40,000
Languages: Swedish (official) note: Finnish, Sami, Romani, Yiddish, and Meankieli are official minority languages
Religions: Church of Sweden (Lutheran) 60.2%, other (includes Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim, Jewish, and Buddhist) 8.5%, none or unspecified 31.3% (2017 est.)

note: estimates reflect registered members of faith communities eligible for state funding (not all religions are state-funded and not all people who identify with a particular religion are registered members); an estimated 57.7% of Sweden's population were members of the Church of Sweden in 2018
Population: 10,040,995 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 17.54% (male 904,957 /female 855,946)
15-24 years: 11.06% (male 573,595 /female 537,358)
25-54 years: 39.37% (male 2,005,422 /female 1,947,245)
55-64 years: 11.67% (male 588,314 /female 583,002)
65 years and over: 20.37% (male 946,170 /female 1,098,986) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 58.5 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 27.4 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 31.1 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 3.2 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 41.1 years
male: 40.1 years
female: 42.2 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.8% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 12.1 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 9.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: 5.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 87.4% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 1.05% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 1.583 million STOCKHOLM (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 29.1 years (2015 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 4 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 2.6 deaths/1,000 live births male: 2.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 82.2 years male: 80.3 years
female: 84.3 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.87 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Physicians density: 5.4 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density: 2.4 beds/1,000 population (2015)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 99.3% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 99.6% of population (2015 est.)
total: 99.3% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 0.7% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 0.4% of population (2015 est.)
total: 0.7% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 11,000 (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: <100 (2016 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 20.6% (2016)
Education expenditures: 7.6% of GDP (2015)
Literacy:
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 19 years male: 18 years female: 20 years (2016)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 17.9% male: 18.8% female: 17% (2017 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden
conventional short form: Sweden
local long form: Konungariket Sverige
local short form: Sverige
etymology: name ultimately derives from the North Germanic Svear tribe, which inhabited central Sweden and is first mentioned in the first centuries A.D.
Government type: parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Capital: name: Stockholm
geographic coordinates: 59 20 N, 18 03 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 21 counties (lan, singular and plural); Blekinge, Dalarna, Gavleborg, Gotland, Halland, Jamtland, Jonkoping, Kalmar, Kronoberg, Norrbotten, Orebro, Ostergotland, Skane, Sodermanland, Stockholm, Uppsala, Varmland, Vasterbotten, Vasternorrland, Vastmanland, Vastra Gotaland
Independence: 6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king of Sweden, marking the abolishment of the Kalmar Union between Denmark, Norway, and Sweden)
National holiday: National Day, 6 June (1983); note - from 1916 to 1982 this date was celebrated as Swedish Flag Day
Constitution: history: several previous; latest adopted 1 January 1975 amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage requires simple majority vote in two consecutive parliamentary terms with an intervening general election; passage also requires approval by simple majority vote in a referendum if Parliament approves a motion for a referendum by one-third of its members; amended several times, last in 2014 (changes to the "Instrument of Government") (2016)
Legal system: civil law system influenced by Roman-Germanic law and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 15 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree (daughter of the monarch, born 14 July 1977)

head of government: Prime Minister Stefan LOFVEN (since 3 October 2014); Deputy Prime Minister Isabella LOVIN (since 25 May 2016); note - Prime Minister Stefan LOFVEN was ousted in a no-confidence vote on 25 September 2018 and headed a caretaker government until the next government was formed; LOFVEN was reelected as Prime Minister and took office on 21 January 2019

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually becomes the prime minister
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats; 310 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed, party-list proportional representation vote and 39 members in "at-large" seats directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 9 September 2018 (next to be held in 2022)

election results: percent of vote by party - SAP 28.3%, M 19.8%, SD 17.5%, C 8.6%, V 8%, KD 6.3%, L 5.5%, MP 4.4%, other 1.6%; seats by party - SAP 100, M 70, SD 62, C 31, V 28, KD 22, L 20, MP 16; composition - men 188, women 161, percent of women 46.1%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court of Sweden (consists of 16 justices, including the court chairman); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 18 justices, including the court president) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court justices nominated by the Judges Proposal Board, a 9-member nominating body consisting of high-level judges, prosecutors, and members of Parliament; justices appointed by the Government; following a probationary period, justices' appointments are permanent

subordinate courts: first instance, appellate, general, and administrative courts; specialized courts that handle cases such as land and environment, immigration, labor, markets, and patents
Political parties and leaders: Center Party (Centerpartiet) or C [Annie LOOF] Christian Democrats (Kristdemokraterna) or KD [Ebba Busch THOR] Green Party (Miljopartiet de Grona) or MP [Isabella LOVIN and Per BOLUND] Left Party (Vansterpartiet) or V [Jonas SJOSTEDT] Liberal Party (Liberalerna) or L [Jan BJORKLUND] Moderate Party (Moderaterna) or M [Ulf KRISTERSSON] Swedish Social Democratic Party (Socialdemokraterna) or SAP [Stefan LOFVEN] Sweden Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna) or SD [Jimmie AKESSON]
International organization participation: ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UN Security Council (temporary), UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National symbol(s): three crowns, lion;
national colors: blue, yellow
National anthem: name: "Du Gamla, Du Fria" (Thou Ancient, Thou Free)
lyrics/music: Richard DYBECK/traditional

note: in use since 1844; also known as "Sang till Norden" (Song of the North), is based on a Swedish folk tune; it has never been officially adopted by the government; "Kungssangen" (The King's Song) serves as the royal anthem and is played in the presence of the royal family and during certain state ceremonies
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Karin Ulrika OLOFSDOTTER (since 17 September 2017)
chancery: The House of Sweden, 2900 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 536-1500
FAX: [1] (202) 536-1501
consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Pamela TREMONT (since April 2019)
embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Vag 31, SE-11589 Stockholm
mailing address: American Embassy Stockholm, US Department of State, 5750 Stockholm Place, Washington, DC 20521-5750
telephone: [46] (08) 783 53 00
FAX: [46] (08) 661 19 64
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 Economy
Sweden’s small, open, and competitive economy has been thriving and Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living with its combination of free-market capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. Sweden remains outside the euro zone largely out of concern that joining the European Economic and Monetary Union would diminish the country’s sovereignty over its welfare system. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of a manufacturing economy that relies heavily on foreign trade. Exports, including engines and other machines, motor vehicles, and telecommunications equipment, account for more than 44% of GDP. Sweden enjoys a current account surplus of about 5% of GDP, which is one of the highest margins in Europe. GDP grew an estimated 3.3% in 2016 and 2017 driven largely by investment in the construction sector. Swedish economists expect economic growth to ease slightly in the coming years as this investment subsides. Global economic growth boosted exports of Swedish manufactures further, helping drive domestic economic growth in 2017. The Central Bank is keeping an eye on deflationary pressures and bank observers expect it to maintain an expansionary monetary policy in 2018. Swedish prices and wages have grown only slightly over the past few years, helping to support the country’s competitiveness. In the short and medium term, Sweden’s economic challenges include providing affordable housing and successfully integrating migrants into the labor market.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $518 billion (2017 est.) $507.3 billion (2016 est.) $494 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $535.6 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2.1% (2017 est.) 2.7% (2016 est.) 4.5% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $51,200 (2017 est.) $50,800 (2016 est.) $50,100 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 28.9% of GDP (2017 est.) 28.8% of GDP (2016 est.) 28.8% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 44.1% (2017 est.) government consumption: 26% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 24.9% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 0.8% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 45.3% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -41.1% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 1.6% (2017 est.) industry: 33% (2017 est.) services: 65.4% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: barley, wheat, sugar beets; meat, milk
Industries: iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles
Industrial production growth rate: 4.1% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 5.361 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 2%
industry: 12%
services: 86% (2014 est.)
Unemployment rate: 6.7% (2017 est.) 7% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: 15% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 24% (2012)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 24.9 (2013) 25 (1992)
Budget: revenues: 271.2 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 264.4 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 50.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): 1.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 40.8% of GDP (2017 est.) 42.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.9% (2017 est.) 1.1% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: $17.79 billion (2017 est.) $21.84 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $165.6 billion (2017 est.) $151.4 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: machinery (26%), motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals (2016 est.)
Exports - partners: Germany 11%, Norway 10.2%, Finland 6.9%, US 6.9%, Denmark 6.9%, UK 6.2%, Netherlands 5.5%, China 4.5%, Belgium 4.4%, France 4.2% (2017)
Imports: $153.2 billion (2017 est.) $140.2 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel; foodstuffs, clothing
Imports - partners: Germany 18.7%, Netherlands 8.9%, Norway 7.7%, Denmark 7.2%, China 5.5%, UK 5.1%, Finland 4.7%, Belgium 4.7% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $62.22 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $59.39 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $939.9 billion (31 March 2016 est.) $929.4 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $458.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $390.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $523.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $479.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $560.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $470.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.) $581.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Exchange rates: Swedish kronor (SEK) per US dollar - 8.442 (2017 est.) 8.5605 (2016 est.) 8.5605 (2015 est.) 8.4335 (2014 est.) 6.8612 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 152.9 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 133.5 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 26.02 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 14.29 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 40.29 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 5% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 22% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 42% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 32% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 14,570 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 400,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 413,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 323,100 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 371,100 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 229,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 764.5 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 764.5 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 52.31 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 12,435,709
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 125 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: highly developed telecommunications infrastructure; ranked among leading countries for fixed-line, mobile-cellular, Internet, and broadband penetration; best developed LTE infrastructures in the region; first in the world to deliver 5G services (2018)

domestic: fixed-line 28 per 100 and mobile-cellular 125 per 100; coaxial and multiconductor cables carry most of the voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay systems carry some additional telephone channels (2018)

international: country code - 46; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway) (2017)
Broadcast media: publicly owned TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial networks plus regional stations; multiple privately owned TV broadcasters operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 50 local TV stations; widespread access to pan-Nordic and international broadcasters through multi-channel cable and satellite TV; publicly owned radio broadcaster operates 3 national stations and a network of 25 regional channels; roughly 100 privately owned local radio stations with some consolidating into near national networks; an estimated 900 community and neighborhood radio stations broadcast intermittently
Internet country code: .se
Internet users: total: 9,041,427
percent of population: 91.5% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 231 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 149
(2013) over 3,047 m: 3 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 75 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 22 (2013)
under 914 m: 37 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 82
(2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 5 (2013)
under 914 m: 77 (2013)
Heliports: 2 (2013)
Pipelines: 1626 km gas (2013)
Railways: total 14,127 km
(2016) standard gauge: 14,062 km 1.435-m gauge (12,322 km electrified) (2016)
narrow gauge: 65 km 0.891-m gauge (65 km electrified) (2016)
Roadways: total 573,134 km
(includes 2,050 km of expressways) (2016) paved: 140,100 km (2016)
unpaved: 433,034 km (2016)

note: includes 98,500 km of state roads, 433,034 km of private roads, and 41,600 km of municipal roads
Waterways: 2,052 km (2010)
Merchant marine: total 359

by type: general cargo 66, oil tanker 22, other 271 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Brofjorden, Goteborg, Helsingborg, Karlshamn, Lulea, Malmo, Stockholm, Trelleborg, Visby LNG terminal(s) (import): Brunnsviksholme, Lysekil
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 Military
Military branches: Swedish Armed Forces (Forsvarsmakten): Army (Armen), Royal Swedish Navy (Marinen), Swedish Air Force (Svenska Flygvapnet) (2018)
Military service age and obligation: 18-47 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; Swedish citizenship required; service obligation: 7.5 months (Army), 7-15 months (Navy), 8-12 months (Air Force); after completing initial service, soldiers have a reserve commitment until age 47; compulsory military service, abolished in 2010, was reinstated in 2018 (2018)
Military expenditures: 1% of GDP (2017) 1.04% of GDP (2016) 1.09% of GDP (2015) 1.14% of GDP (2014) 1.13% of GDP (2013)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 109,343 (Syria), 27,653 (Eritrea), 28,204 (Afghanistan), 21,032 (Somalia), 12,693 (Iraq), 6,485 (Iran) (2018)
stateless persons: 31,819 (2018); note - the majority of stateless people are from the Middle East and Somalia
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