Singapore Population: 5,781,728


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Singapore was founded as a British trading colony in 1819. It joined the Malaysian Federation in 1963 but was ousted two years later and became independent. Singapore subsequently became one of the world's most prosperous countries with strong international trading links (its port is one of the world's busiest in terms of tonnage handled) and with per capita GDP equal to that of the leading nations of Western Europe.

Focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes
Location: Southeastern Asia, islands between Malaysia and Indonesia
Geographic coordinates: 1 22 N, 103 48 E
Area: total: 697 sq km
land: 687 sq km
water: 10 sq km

Size comparison: slightly more than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 193 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 3 nm exclusive fishing zone: within and beyond territorial sea, as defined in treaties and practice
Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons - northeastern monsoon (December to March) and southwestern monsoon (June to September); inter-monsoon - frequent afternoon and early evening thunderstorms
Terrain: lowlying, gently undulating central plateau
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: fish, deepwater ports
Land use: agricultural land: 1% arable land 0.9%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 0% forest: 3.3%
other: 95.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 0 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: NA
Current Environment Issues: industrial pollution; limited natural freshwater resources; limited land availability presents waste disposal problems; seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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Nationality: noun: Singaporean(s)
adjective: Singapore
Ethnic groups: Chinese 74.2%, Malay 13.3%, Indian 9.2%, other 3.3% (2013 est.)
Languages: Mandarin (official) 36.3%, English (official) 29.8%, Malay (official) 11.9%, Hokkien 8.1%, Cantonese 4.1%, Tamil (official) 3.2%, Teochew 3.2%, other Indian languages 1.2%, other Chinese dialects 1.1%, other 1.1% (2010 est.)
Religions: Buddhist 33.9%, Muslim 14.3%, Taoist 11.3%, Catholic 7.1%, Hindu 5.2%, other Christian 11%, other 0.7%, none 16.4% (2010 est.)
Population: 5,781,728 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 12.94% (male 382,479/female 365,595)
15-24 years: 17.02% (male 484,355/female 499,940)
25-54 years: 50.45% (male 1,420,833/female 1,496,125)
55-64 years: 10.34% (male 299,446/female 298,562)
65 years and over: 9.24% (male 243,418/female 290,975) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 37.4%
youth dependency ratio: 21.4%
elderly dependency ratio: 16.1%
potential support ratio: 6.2% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 34.3 years
male: 34.2 years
female: 34.4 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.86% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 8.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 3.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 13.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 100% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.02% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: SINGAPORE (capital) 5.619 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 30.5 median age (2015 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 10 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 2.4 deaths/1,000 live births male: 2.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 85 years male: 82.3 years
female: 87.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 0.82 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Health expenditures: 4.9% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 1.95 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density: 2 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

urban: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

urban: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 6.8% (2014)
Education expenditures: 2.9% of GDP (2013)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.8%
male: 98.6%
female: 95% (2015 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 7% male: 5.4%
female: 9% (2013)
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Singapore
conventional short form: Singapore
local long form: Republic of Singapore
local short form: Singapore
etymology: name derives from the Sanskrit words "singa" (lion) and "pura" (city) to describe the city-state's leonine symbol
Government type: parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Singapore
geographic coordinates: 1 17 N, 103 51 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: none
Independence: 9 August 1965 (from Malaysian Federation)
National holiday: National Day, 9 August (1965)
Constitution: several previous; latest adopted 22 December 1965; amended many times, last in 2015 (2016)
Legal system: English common law
Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: chief of state: President Tony TAN Keng Yam (since 1 September 2011)

head of government: Prime Minister LEE Hsien Loong (since 12 August 2004); Deputy Prime Ministers TEO Chee Hean (since 1 April 2009) and Tharman SHANMUGARATNAM (since 21 May 2011)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister; Cabinet responsible to Parliament elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a single 6-year term; election last held on 27 August 2011 (next to be held by August 2017); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by president; deputy prime ministers appointed by the president

election results: Tony TAN Keng Yam elected president; percent of vote - Tony TAN Keng Yam (independent) 35.2% , TAN Cheng Bock (independent) 34.9%, TAN Jee Say (independent) 25%, TAN Kin Lian (PP) 4.9%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Parliament (101 seats; 89 members directly elected by popular vote, 9 nominated by the president, and up to 9 - but currently 3 - non-constituency members from opposition parties to ensure political diversity; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 11 September 2015 (next to be held in 2020)

election results: percent of vote by party - PAP 69.9%, WP 12.5%, other 17.6%; seats by party - PAP 83, WP 6
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the president or chief justice and 16 justices and organized into an upper tier Appeal Court and a lower tier High Court) judge selection and term of office: all judges appointed by the president from candidates recommended by the prime minister after consultation with the chief justice; justices appointed for life

subordinate courts: district, magistrates', juvenile, family, community, and coroners' courts; small claims tribunals
Political parties and leaders: National Solidarity Party or NSP [LIM Tean] People's Action Party or PAP [LEE Hsien Loong] Singapore Democratic Party or SDP [CHEE Soon Juan] Workers' Party or WP [LOW Thia Khiang]
Political pressure groups and leaders: none
International organization participation: ADB, AOSIS, APEC, Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN, BIS, C, CP, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): lion, merlion (mythical half lion-half fish creature), orchid; national colors: red, white
National anthem: name: "Majulah Singapura" (Onward Singapore)
lyrics/music: ZUBIR Said

note: adopted 1965; first performed in 1958 at the Victoria Theatre, the anthem is sung only in Malay
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ashok Kumar MIRPURI (since 24 July 2012)
chancery: 3501 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 537-3100
FAX: [1] (202) 537-0876
consulate(s) general: San Francisco consulate(s): New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Kirk W. WAGAR (since 25 September 2013)
embassy: 27 Napier Road, Singapore 258508
mailing address: FPO AP 96507-0001
telephone: [65] 6476-9100
FAX: [65] 6476-9340
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Singapore has a highly developed and successful free-market economy. It enjoys a remarkably open and corruption-free environment, stable prices, and a per capita GDP higher than that of most developed countries. Unemployment is very low. The economy depends heavily on exports, particularly of consumer electronics, information technology products, medical and optical devices, pharmaceuticals, and on its vibrant transportation, business, and financial services sectors. The economy contracted 0.6% in 2009 as a result of the global financial crisis, but has continued to grow since 2010 on the strength of renewed exports. Growth in 2014-15 was slower at under 3%, largely a result of soft demand for exports amid a sluggish global economy and weak growth in Singapore’s manufacturing sector. The government is attempting to restructure Singapore’s economy by weaning its dependence on foreign labor, addressing weak productivity, and increasing Singaporean wages. Singapore has attracted major investments in pharmaceuticals and medical technology production and will continue efforts to strengthen its position as Southeast Asia's leading financial and high-tech hub. Singapore is a member of the 12-nation Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade negotiations, as well as the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership negotiations with the nine other ASEAN members plus Australia, China, India, Japan, South Korea, and New Zealand. In 2015, Singapore formed, with the other ASEAN members, the ASEAN Economic Community.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $486.9 billion (2016 est.) $478.8 billion (2015 est.) $469.4 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $296.6 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 1.7% (2016 est.) 2% (2015 est.) 3.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $87,100 (2016 est.) $86,500 (2015 est.) $85,800 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 46% of GDP (2016 est.) 46.1% of GDP (2015 est.) 46.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 36.1%
government consumption: 10.8%
investment in fixed capital: 23.4%
investment in inventories: 2%
exports of goods and services: 176.9%
imports of goods and services: -149.2% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 36.1%
government consumption: 10.8%
investment in fixed capital: 23.4%
investment in inventories: 2%
exports of goods and services: 176.9%
imports of goods and services: -149.2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: orchids, vegetables; poultry, eggs; fish, ornamental fish
Industries: electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship repair, offshore platform construction, life sciences, entrepot trade
Industrial production growth rate: 1% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 3.661 million note: excludes non-residents (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 1.3%
industry: 14.8%
services: 83.9% note: excludes non-residents (2014)
Unemployment rate: 2.1% (2016 est.) 1.9% (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 11% (2014)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 46.4 (2014) 46.3 (2013)
Budget: revenues: $46.86 billion
expenditures: $44.83 billion note: expenditures include both operational and development expenditures (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 15.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 110.5% of GDP (2016 est.) 104.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

note: Singapore's public debt consists largely of Singapore Government Securities (SGS) issued to assist the Central Provident Fund (CPF), which administers Singapore's defined contribution pension fund; special issues of SGS are held by the CPF, and are non-tr
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): -0.8% (2016 est.) -0.5% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: $57.26 billion (2016 est.) $57.92 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $353.3 billion (2016 est.) $377.1 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment (including electronics and telecommunications), pharmaceuticals and other chemicals, refined petroleum products, foodstuffs and beverages
Exports - partners: China 13.7%, Hong Kong 11.5%, Malaysia 10.8%, Indonesia 8.2%, US 6.9%, Japan 4.4%, South Korea 4.1% (2015)
Imports: $271.3 billion (2016 est.) $294.5 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, chemicals, foodstuffs, consumer goods
Imports - partners: China 14.2%, US 11.2%, Malaysia 11.2%, Japan 6.3%, South Korea 6.1%, Indonesia 4.8% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $249.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $247.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $467.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $465.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $1.041 trillion (31 December 2016 est.) $978.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $673 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $625.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $640 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $752.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $744.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: Singapore dollars (SGD) per US dollar - 1.379 (2016 est.) 1.3748 (2015 est.) 1.3748 (2014 est.) 1.2671 (2013 est.) 1.25 (2012 est.)
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Electricity - production: 49.31 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 47.18 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 13 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 95.3% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 3.9% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 11,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 895,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 1.02 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 1.292 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 1.697 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 2.035 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 10.9 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 10.9 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 216 million Mt (2013 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total: 8.211 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 145 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: excellent service

domestic: excellent domestic facilities; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity more than 180 telephones per 100 persons; multiple providers of high-speed Internet connectivity

international: country code - 65; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 4; supplemented by VSAT coverage (2015)
Broadcast media: state controls broadcast media; 8 domestic TV stations operated by MediaCorp which is wholly owned by a state investment company; broadcasts from Malaysian and Indonesian stations available; satellite dishes banned; multi-channel cable TV service availabl
Internet country code: .sg
Internet users: total: 4.659 million percent of population: 82.1% (July 2015 est.)
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Airports: 9 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 9
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 122 km; refined products 8 km (2013)
Roadways: total 3,425 km
paved: 3,425 km (includes 161 km of expressways) (2012)
Merchant marine: total 1,599

by type: bulk carrier 247, cargo 109, carrier 6, chemical tanker 256, container 339, liquefied gas 131, petroleum tanker 436, refrigerated cargo 13, roll on/roll off 5, vehicle carrier 57

foreign-owned: 966 (Australia 12, Bangladesh 1, Belgium 1, Bermuda 25, Brazil 9, Chile 6, China 29, Cyprus 6, Denmark 149, France 3, Germany 32, Greece 22, Hong Kong 46, India 21, Indonesia 60, Italy 5, Japan 164, Malaysia 27, Netherlands 1, Norway 153, Russia 2, South Afr

registered in other countries: 344 (Australia 2, Bahamas 7, Bangladesh 7, Belize 4, Cambodia 3, Cyprus 1, France 3, Honduras 11, Hong Kong 13, Indonesia 46, Italy 1, Kiribati 9, Liberia 22, Malaysia 13, Maldives 4, Malta 4, Marshall Islands 30, Mongolia 3, North Korea 1, Panama 92, Philipp (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Singapore container port(s) (TEUs): Singapore (31,649,400) LNG terminal(s) (import): Singapore
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Military branches: Singapore Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force (includes Air Defense) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18-21 years of age for male compulsory military service; 16 1/2 years of age for volunteers; 2-year conscript service obligation, with a reserve obligation to age 40 (enlisted) or age 50 (officers) (2012)
Military expenditures: 3.52% of GDP (2012) 3.47% of GDP (2011) 3.52% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: disputes persist with Malaysia over deliveries of fresh water to Singapore, Singapore's extensive land reclamation works, bridge construction, and maritime boundaries in the Johor and Singapore Straits; in 2008, ICJ awarded sovereignty of Pedra Branca (Pulau Batu Puteh/Horsburgh Island) to Singapore, and Middle Rocks to Malaysia, but did not rule on maritime regimes, boundaries, or disposition of South Ledge; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalization of their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait
Illicit drugs: drug abuse limited because of aggressive law enforcement efforts, including carrying out death sentences; as a transportation and financial services hub, Singapore is vulnerable, despite strict laws and enforcement, as a venue for money laundering
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook

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