Singapore Population: 5,995,991

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 History
A Malay trading port known as Temasek existed on the island of Singapore by the 14th century. The settlement changed hands several times in the ensuing centuries and was eventually burned in the 17th century and fell into obscurity. The British founded modern Singapore as a trading colony on the site in 1819. It joined the Malaysian Federation in 1963 but was ousted two years later and became independent. Singapore subsequently became one of the world's most prosperous countries with strong international trading links (its port is one of the world's busiest in terms of tonnage handled) and with per capita GDP equal to that of the leading nations of Western Europe.

 Geography
    Focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes; consists of about 60 islands, by far the largest of which is Pulau Ujong; land reclamation has removed many former islands and created a number of new ones
Location: Southeastern Asia, islands between Malaysia and Indonesia
Geographic coordinates: 1 22 N, 103 48 E
Area: total: 719.2 sq km
land: 709.2 sq km
water: 10 sq km

Size comparison: slightly more than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 193 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 3 nm exclusive fishing zone: within and beyond territorial sea, as defined in treaties and practice
Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons - northeastern monsoon (December to March) and southwestern monsoon (June to September); inter-monsoon - frequent afternoon and early evening thunderstorms
Terrain: lowlying, gently undulating central plateau
Natural resources: fish, deepwater ports
Land use: agricultural land: 1% (2011 est.) arable land: 0.9% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 0.1% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 0% (2011 est.) forest: 3.3% (2011 est.)
other: 95.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 0 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: flash floods
Current Environment Issues: water pollution; industrial pollution; limited natural freshwater resources; limited land availability presents waste disposal problems; air pollution; deforestation; seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Singaporean(s)
adjective: Singapore
Ethnic groups: Chinese 74.3%, Malay 13.4%, Indian 9%, other 3.2% (2018 est.) note: individuals self-identify; the population is divided into four categories: Chinese, Malay (includes indigenous Malays and Indonesians), Indian (includes Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, or Sri Lankan), and other ethnic groups (includes Eurasians, Caucasians, Japanese, Filipino, Vietnamese)
Languages: English (official) 36.9%, Mandarin (official) 34.9%, other Chinese dialects (includes Hokkien, Cantonese, Teochew, Hakka) 12.2%, Malay (official) 10.7%, Tamil (official) 3.3%, other 2% (2015 est.) note: data represent language most frequently spoken at home
Religions: Buddhist 33.2%, Christian 18.8%, Muslim 14%, Taoist 10%, Hindu 5%, other 0.6%, none 18.5% (2015 est.)
Population: 5,995,991 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 12.77% (male 391,714 /female 373,766)
15-24 years: 16.05% (male 473,012 /female 489,553)
25-54 years: 50.61% (male 1,476,528 /female 1,558,179)
55-64 years: 10.53% (male 316,001 /female 315,648)
65 years and over: 10.03% (male 274,863 /female 326,727) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 37.3 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 21.3 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 16 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 6.2 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 34.9 years
male: 34.8 years
female: 35.1 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.79% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 8.7 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 3.5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: 12.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 100% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 1.39% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 5.792 million SINGAPORE (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 30.5 years (2015 est.) median age
Maternal mortality rate: 10 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 2.3 deaths/1,000 live births male: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 85.5 years male: 82.8 years
female: 88.3 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 0.84 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Physicians density: 2.31 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density: 2.4 beds/1,000 population (2015)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 100% of population (2015 est.)
total: 100% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population (2015 est.)
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 7,600 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: <100 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 6.1% (2016)
Education expenditures: 2.9% of GDP (2013)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2016 est.)
total population: 97%
male: 98.7%
female: 95.4% (2016 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 16 years male: 16 years female: 17 years (2016)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 9.1% male: 6.2% female: 12.5% (2016 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Singapore
conventional short form: Singapore
local long form: Republic of Singapore
local short form: Singapore
etymology: name derives from the Sanskrit words "singa" (lion) and "pura" (city) to describe the city-state's leonine symbol
Government type: parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Singapore
geographic coordinates: 1 17 N, 103 51 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: none
Independence: 9 August 1965 (from Malaysian Federation)
National holiday: National Day, 9 August (1965)
Constitution: history: several previous; latest adopted 22 December 1965 amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage requires two-thirds majority vote in the second and third readings by the elected Parliament membership and assent by the president of the republic; passage of amendments affecting sovereignty or control of the Police Force or the Armed Forces requires at least two-thirds majority vote in a referendum; amended many times, last in 2016 (2018)
Legal system: English common law
Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: chief of state: President HALIMAH Yacob (since 14 September 2017); note - President TAN's term ended on 31 August 2017; HALIMAH is Singapore's first female president; the head of the Council of Presidential Advisors, J.Y. PILLAY, served as acting president until HALIMAH was sworn in as president on 14 September 2017

head of government: Prime Minister LEE Hsien Loong (since 12 August 2004); Deputy Prime Ministers TEO Chee Hean (since 1 April 2009) and Tharman SHANMUGARATNAM (since 21 May 2011)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister; Cabinet responsible to Parliament elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a fixed term of 6-years (there are no term limits); election last held on 13 September 2017 (next to be held in 2023); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or majority coalition appointed prime minister by president; deputy prime ministers appointed by the president

election results: HALIMAH Yacob was declared president on 13 September 2017, being the only eligible candidate; Tony TAN Keng Yam elected president in the previous contested election on 27 August 2011; percent of vote - Tony TAN Keng Yam (independent) 35.2% , TAN Cheng Bock (independent) 34.9%, TAN Jee Say (independent) 25%, TAN Kin Lian (independent) 4.9%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Parliament (101 seats; 89 members directly elected by popular vote, up to 9 nominated by a parliamentary selection committee and appointed by the president, and up to 9 but currently 3 non-constituency members from opposition parties to ensure political diversity; members serve 5-year terms); note - the number of nominated members will increase to 12 for the 2020 election

elections: last held on 11 September 2015 (next to be held in 2020)

election results: percent of vote by party - PAP 69.9%, WP 12.5%, other 17.6%; seats by party - PAP 83, WP 6; composition - men 77, women 24, percent of women 23.8%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court (although the number of judges varies - as of April 2019, the court totaled 20 judges, 7 judicial commissioners, 4 judges of appeal, and 16 international judges); the court is organized into an upper tier Appeal Court and a lower tier High Court) judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president from candidates recommended by the prime minister after consultation with the chief justice; judges usually serve until retirement at age 65, but terms can be extended

subordinate courts: district, magistrates', juvenile, family, community, and coroners' courts; small claims tribunals; employment claims tribunals
Political parties and leaders: National Solidarity Party or NSP [Sebastian TEO] People's Action Party or PAP [LEE Hsien Loong] Progress Singapore Party or PSP [Tan Cheng Bock] Singapore Democratic Party or SDP [Dr. CHEE Soon Juan] Workers' Party or WP [Pritam SINGH]
International organization participation: ADB, AOSIS, APEC, Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN, BIS, C, CP, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): lion, merlion (mythical half lion-half fish creature), orchid;
national colors: red, white
National anthem: name: "Majulah Singapura" (Onward Singapore)
lyrics/music: ZUBIR Said

note: adopted 1965; first performed in 1958 at the Victoria Theatre, the anthem is sung only in Malay
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ashok Kumar MIRPURI (since 30 July 2012)
chancery: 3501 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 537-3100
FAX: [1] (202) 537-0876
consulate(s) general: San Francisco consulate(s): New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Stephanie SYPTAK-RAMNATH (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: 27 Napier Road, Singapore 258508
mailing address: FPO AP 96507-0001
telephone: [65] 6476-9100
FAX: [65] 6476-9340
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 Economy
Singapore has a highly developed and successful free-market economy. It enjoys an open and corruption-free environment, stable prices, and a per capita GDP higher than that of most developed countries. Unemployment is very low. The economy depends heavily on exports, particularly of electronics, petroleum products, chemicals, medical and optical devices, pharmaceuticals, and on Singapore’s vibrant transportation, business, and financial services sectors. The economy contracted 0.6% in 2009 as a result of the global financial crisis, but has continued to grow since 2010. Growth from 2012-2017 was slower than during the previous decade, a result of slowing structural growth - as Singapore reached high-income levels - and soft global demand for exports. Growth recovered to 3.6% in 2017 with a strengthening global economy. The government is attempting to restructure Singapore’s economy to reduce its dependence on foreign labor, raise productivity growth, and increase wages amid slowing labor force growth and an aging population. Singapore has attracted major investments in advanced manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, and medical technology production and will continue efforts to strengthen its position as Southeast Asia's leading financial and technology hub. Singapore is a signatory of the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP), and a party to the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) negotiations with nine other ASEAN members plus Australia, China, India, Japan, South Korea, and New Zealand. In 2015, Singapore formed, with the other ASEAN members, the ASEAN Economic Community.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $528.1 billion (2017 est.) $509.7 billion (2016 est.) $497.8 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $323.9 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.6% (2017 est.) 2.4% (2016 est.) 2.2% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $94,100 (2017 est.) $90,900 (2016 est.) $89,900 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 46.5% of GDP (2017 est.) 46% of GDP (2016 est.) 45.7% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 35.6% (2017 est.) government consumption: 10.9% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 24.8% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 2.8% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 173.3% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -149.1% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 0% (2017 est.) industry: 24.8% (2017 est.) services: 75.2% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: vegetables; poultry, eggs; fish, ornamental fish, orchids
Industries: electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, biomedical products, scientific instruments, telecommunication equipment, processed food and beverages, ship repair, offshore platform construction, entrepot trade
Industrial production growth rate: 5.7% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 3.657 million (2017 est.) note: excludes non-residents
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 0.7%
industry: 25.6%
services: 73.7% (2017)

note: excludes non-residents
Unemployment rate: 2.2% (2017 est.) 2.1% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: n/a
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.6%
highest 10%: 27.5% (2017)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 45.9 (2017) 45.8 (2016)
Budget: revenues: 50.85 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 51.87 billion (2017 est.)

note: expenditures include both operational and development expenditures
Taxes and other revenues: 15.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -0.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 111.1% of GDP (2017 est.) 106.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: Singapore's public debt consists largely of Singapore Government Securities (SGS) issued to assist the Central Provident Fund (CPF), which administers Singapore's defined contribution pension fund; special issues of SGS are held by the CPF, and are non-tradable; the government has not borrowed to finance deficit expenditures since the 1980s; Singapore has no external public debt
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.6% (2017 est.) -0.5% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: $60.99 billion (2017 est.) $58.85 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $396.8 billion (2017 est.) $338 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment (including electronics and telecommunications), pharmaceuticals and other chemicals, refined petroleum products, foodstuffs and beverages
Exports - partners: China 14.7%, Hong Kong 12.6%, Malaysia 10.8%, US 6.6%, Indonesia 5.8%, Japan 4.7%, South Korea 4.6%, Thailand 4% (2017)
Imports: $312.1 billion (2017 est.) $277.6 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, chemicals, foodstuffs, consumer goods
Imports - partners: China 13.9%, Malaysia 12%, US 10.7%, Japan 6.3%, South Korea 5% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $279.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $271.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $566.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $464.1 billion (30 September 2017 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $1.285 trillion (31 December 2017 est.) $1.22 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $841.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $759.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $809.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $712.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $696 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange rates: Singapore dollars (SGD) per US dollar - 1.3 (2017 est.) 1.35 (2016 est.) 1.3815 (2015 est.) 1.3748 (2014 est.) 1.2671 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 48.66 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 47.69 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 13.35 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 98% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 14,780 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 783,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 755,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 1.322 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 1.82 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 2.335 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 12.97 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 622.9 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 13.48 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 249.5 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 8,462,800
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 144 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: excellent service; world leader in telecommunications and perhaps the first 'Smart Nation' where a sensor network is implemented; saturated mobile audience; roll out of 4G and 5G networks to ensure faster speeds; wireless and fiber broadband growing segments of telecommunications (2018)

domestic: excellent domestic facilities; fixed-line 34.9 per 100 and mobile-cellular 149.6 per 100 teledensity; multiple providers of high-speed Internet connectivity (2018)

international: country code - 65; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 3, Bukit Timah, Seletar, and Sentosa; supplemented by VSAT coverage
Broadcast media: state controls broadcast media; 6 domestic TV stations operated by MediaCorp which is wholly owned by a state investment company; broadcasts from Malaysian and Indonesian stations available; satellite dishes banned; multi-channel cable TV services available; a total of 19 domestic radio stations broadcasting, with MediaCorp operating 11, Singapore Press Holdings, also government-linked, another 5, 2 controlled by the Singapore Armed Forces Reservists Association and one owned by BBC Radio; Malaysian and Indonesian radio stations are available as is BBC; a number of Internet service radio stations are also available (2019)
Internet country code: .sg
Internet users: total: 4,683,200
percent of population: 81% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 9 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 9
(2017) over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
under 914 m: 1 (2017)
Pipelines: 3220 km domestic gas (2014), 1122 km cross-border pipelines (2017), 8 km refined products (2013)
Roadways: total 3,500 km
(2017) paved: 3,500 km (includes 164 km of expressways) (2017)
Merchant marine: total 3,526

by type: bulk carrier 603, container ship 490, general cargo 132, oil tanker 732, other 1,569 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Singapore container port(s) (TEUs): Singapore (33,666,000) (2017) LNG terminal(s) (import): Singapore
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 Military
Military branches: Singapore Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force (includes Air Defense) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18-21 years of age for male compulsory military service; 16 1/2 years of age for volunteers; 2-year conscript service obligation, with a reserve obligation to age 40 (enlisted) or age 50 (officers)
Military expenditures: 3.12% of GDP (2017) 3.35% of GDP (2016) 3.16% of GDP (2015) 3.11% of GDP (2014) 3.09% of GDP (2013)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: disputes with Malaysia over territorial waters, airspace, the price of fresh water delivered to Singapore from Malaysia, Singapore's extensive land reclamation works, bridge construction, and maritime boundaries in the Johor and Singapore Straits; in 2008, ICJ awarded sovereignty of Pedra Branca (Pulau Batu Puteh/Horsburgh Island) to Singapore, and Middle Rocks to Malaysia, but did not rule on maritime regimes, boundaries, or disposition of South Ledge; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalization of their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 1,303 (2018)
Illicit drugs: drug abuse limited because of aggressive law enforcement efforts, including carrying out death sentences; as a transportation and financial services hub, Singapore is vulnerable, despite strict laws and enforcement, as a venue for money laundering
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