El Salvador Population: 6,187,271

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 History
El Salvador achieved independence from Spain in 1821 and from the Central American Federation in 1839. A 12-year civil war, which cost about 75,000 lives, was brought to a close in 1992 when the government and leftist rebels signed a treaty that provided for military and political reforms. El Salvador is beset by one of the world's highest homicide rates and pervasive criminal gangs.

 Geography
    Smallest Central American country and only one without a coastline on the Caribbean Sea
Location: Central America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and Honduras
Geographic coordinates: 13 50 N, 88 55 W
Area: total: 21,041 sq km
land: 20,721 sq km
water: 320 sq km

Size comparison: about the same size as New Jersey
Land Boundaries: total: 590 km border countries (2): Guatemala 199 km, Honduras 391 km
Coastline: 307 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
Climate: tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to April); tropical on coast; temperate in uplands
Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau
Natural resources: hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum, arable land
Land use: agricultural land: 74.7% (2011 est.) arable land: 33.1% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 10.9% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 30.7% (2011 est.) forest: 13.6% (2011 est.)
other: 11.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 452 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: known as the Land of Volcanoes; frequent and sometimes destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity; extremely susceptible to hurricanes volcanism: significant volcanic activity; San Salvador (1,893 m), which last erupted in 1917, has the potential to cause major harm to the country's capital, which lies just below the volcano's slopes; San Miguel (2,130 m), which last erupted in 2002, is one of the most active volcanoes in the country; other historically active volcanoes include Conchaguita, Ilopango, Izalco, and Santa Ana
Current Environment Issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution; contamination of soils from disposal of toxic wastes
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
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 People
Nationality: noun: Salvadoran(s)
adjective: Salvadoran
Ethnic groups: mestizo 86.3%, white 12.7%, Amerindian 0.2% (includes Lenca, Kakawira, Nahua-Pipil), black 0.1%, other 0.6% (2007 est.)
Languages: Spanish (official), Nawat (among some Amerindians)
Religions: Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 36%, other 2%, none 12% (2014 est.)
Population: 6,187,271 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 25.3% (male 802,813 /female 762,852)
15-24 years: 19.88% (male 619,550 /female 610,725)
25-54 years: 39.8% (male 1,143,226 /female 1,319,138)
55-64 years: 7.32% (male 198,513 /female 254,640)
65 years and over: 7.69% (male 208,817 /female 266,997) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 56.8 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 44.4 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 12.4 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 8 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 27.6 years
male: 26.1 years
female: 29.1 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.25% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 16.1 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 5.8 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -7.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 72% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 1.57% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 1.107 million SAN SALVADOR (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.78 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 20.8 years (2008 est.) note: median age at first birth among women 25-29
Maternal mortality rate: 54 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 16.3 deaths/1,000 live births male: 18.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.1 years male: 71.8 years
female: 78.6 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.84 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 72% (2014)
Physicians density: 1.57 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density: 1.3 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 97.5% of population
rural: 86.5% of population
total: 93.8% of population

unimproved:
urban: 2.5% of population
rural: 13.5% of population
total: 6.2% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 82.4% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 60% of population (2015 est.)
total: 75% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 17.6% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 40% of population (2015 est.)
total: 25% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.6% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 25,000 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: <1000 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 24.6% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 5% (2014)
Education expenditures: 3.8% of GDP (2017)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2016 est.)
total population: 88.1%
male: 90.3%
female: 86.3% (2016 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 12 years male: 12 years female: 12 years (2016)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 10.1% male: 8.8% female: 12.2% (2017)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of El Salvador
conventional short form: El Salvador
local long form: Republica de El Salvador
local short form: El Salvador
etymology: name is an abbreviation of the original Spanish conquistador designation for the area "Provincia de Nuestro Senor Jesus Cristo, el Salvador del Mundo" (Province of Our Lord Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the World), which became simply "El Salvador" (The Savior)
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: San Salvador
geographic coordinates: 13 42 N, 89 12 W
time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: Spanish for "Holy Saviour" (referring to Jesus Christ)
Administrative divisions: 14 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Ahuachapan, Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan, San Miguel, San Salvador, San Vicente, Santa Ana, Sonsonate, Usulutan
Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Constitution: history: many previous; latest drafted 16 December 1983, enacted 23 December 1983 amendments: proposals require agreement by absolute majority of the Legislative Assembly membership; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly; constitutional articles on basic principles, and citizen rights and freedoms cannot be amended; amended many times, last in 2018 (2018)
Legal system: civil law system with minor common law influence; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Nayib Armando BUKELE Ortez (since 1 June 2019); Vice President Felix Augusto Antonio ULLOA Garay (since 1 June 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Nayib Armando BUKELE Ortez (since 1 June 2019); Vice President Felix Augusto Antonio ULLOA Garay (since 1 June 2019)

cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the president elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 5-year term; election last held on 3 February 2019 (next to be held on February 2024)

election results: Nayib Armando BUKELE Ortez elected president - Nayib Armando BUKELE Ortez (GANA) 53.1%, Carlos CALLEJA Hakker (ARENA) 31.72%, Hugo MARTINEZ (FMLN) 14.41%, other 0.77%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa (84 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies and a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote to serve 3-year terms)

elections: last held on 4 March 2018 (next to be held in March 2021)

election results: percent of vote by party - ARENA 42.3%, FMLN 24.4%, GANA 11.5%, PCN 10.8%, PDC 3.2%, CD 0.9%, Independent 0.7%, other 6.2%; seats by party - ARENA 37, FMLN 23, GANA 11, PCN 8, PDC 3, CD 1, independent 1; composition -men 58, women 26, percent of women 31%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema de Justicia (consists of 16 judges and 16 substitutes judges organized into Constitutional, Civil, Penal, and Administrative Conflict Chambers) judge selection and term of office: judges elected by the Legislative Assembly on the recommendation of both the National Council of the Judicature, an independent body elected by the Legislative Assembly, and the Bar Association; judges elected for 9-year terms, with renewal of one-third of membership every 3 years; consecutive reelection is allowed

subordinate courts: Appellate Courts; Courts of First Instance; Courts of Peace
Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Rodolfo Antonio PARKER Soto] Democratic Change (Cambio Democratico) or CD [Douglas AVILES] (formerly United Democratic Center or CDU) Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front or FMLN [Medardo GONZALEZ] Great Alliance for National Unity or GANA [Jose Andres ROVIRA Caneles] National Coalition Party or PCN [Manuel RODRIGUEZ] Nationalist Republican Alliance or ARENA [Mauricio INTERIANO] Nuevas Ideas [Federico Gerardo ANLIKER]
International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, CD, CELAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, Petrocaribe, SICA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): turquoise-browed motmot (bird);
national colors: blue, white
National anthem: name: "Himno Nacional de El Salvador" (National Anthem of El Salvador)
lyrics/music: Juan Jose CANAS/Juan ABERLE

note: officially adopted 1953, in use since 1879; at 4:20 minutes, the anthem of El Salvador is one of the world's longest
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires, ad interim Werner Matias ROMERO Guerra (since 9 June 2019)
chancery: 1400 16th Street NW, Suite 100, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 595-7500
FAX: [1] (202) 232-1928
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Brentwood (NY), Chicago, Dallas, Doral (FL), Doraville (GA), Houston, Las Vegas (NV), Los Angeles, McAllen (TX), New York, Nogales (AZ), San Francisco, Silver Spring (MD), Tucson (AZ), Washington, DC, Woodbridge (VA) consulate(s): Elizabeth (NJ), Newark (NJ), Seattle, Woodbridge (VA)
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jean Elizabeth MANES (since 29 March 2016)
embassy: Final Boulevard Santa Elena Sur, Antiguo Cuscatlan, La Libertad, San Salvador
mailing address: Unit 3450, APO AA 34023; 3450 San Salvador Place, Washington, DC 20521-3450
telephone: [503] 2501-2999
FAX: [503] 2501-2150
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 Economy
The smallest country in Central America geographically, El Salvador has the fourth largest economy in the region. With the global recession, real GDP contracted in 2009 and economic growth has since remained low, averaging less than 2% from 2010 to 2014, but recovered somewhat in 2015-17 with an average annual growth rate of 2.4%. Remittances accounted for approximately 18% of GDP in 2017 and were received by about a third of all households. In 2006, El Salvador was the first country to ratify the Dominican Republic-Central American Free Trade Agreement, which has bolstered the export of processed foods, sugar, and ethanol, and supported investment in the apparel sector amid increased Asian competition. In September 2015, El Salvador kicked off a five-year $277 million second compact with the Millennium Challenge Corporation - a US Government agency aimed at stimulating economic growth and reducing poverty - to improve El Salvador's competitiveness and productivity in international markets. The Salvadoran Government maintained fiscal discipline during reconstruction and rebuilding following earthquakes in 2001 and hurricanes in 1998 and 2005, but El Salvador's public debt, estimated at 59.3% of GDP in 2017, has been growing over the last several years.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $51.17 billion (2017 est.) $50.01 billion (2016 est.) $48.75 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $24.81 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2.3% (2017 est.) 2.6% (2016 est.) 2.4% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $8,000 (2017 est.) $7,900 (2016 est.) $7,700 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 14.9% of GDP (2017 est.) 13% of GDP (2016 est.) 12.4% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 84.5% (2017 est.) government consumption: 15.8% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 16.9% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 27.6% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -44.9% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 12% (2017 est.) industry: 27.7% (2017 est.) services: 60.3% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: coffee, sugar, corn, rice, beans, oilseed, cotton, sorghum; beef, dairy products
Industries: food processing, beverages, petroleum, chemicals, fertilizer, textiles, furniture, light metals
Industrial production growth rate: 3.6% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 2.774 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 21%
industry: 20%
services: 58% (2011 est.)
Unemployment rate: 7% (2017 est.) 6.9% (2016 est.) note: data are official rates; but underemployment is high
Population below poverty line: 32.7% (2016 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.2%
highest 10%: 32.3% (2014 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 36 (2016 est.) 38 (2014)
Budget: revenues: 5.886 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 6.517 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 23.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -2.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 67.9% of GDP (2017 est.) 66.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: El Salvador's total public debt includes non-financial public sector debt, financial public sector debt, and central bank debt
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (2017 est.) 0.6% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: -$501 million (2017 est.) -$500 million (2016 est.)
Exports: $4.662 billion (2017 est.) $5.42 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: offshore assembly exports, coffee, sugar, textiles and apparel, ethanol, chemicals, electricity, iron and steel manufactures
Exports - partners: US 45.7%, Honduras 13.9%, Guatemala 13.5%, Nicaragua 6.7%, Costa Rica 4.6% (2017)
Imports: $9.499 billion (2017 est.) $8.954 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods, fuels, foodstuffs, petroleum, electricity
Imports - partners: US 36.7%, Guatemala 10.5%, China 8.7%, Mexico 7.4%, Honduras 6.7% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $3.567 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $3.238 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $15.51 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $16.32 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $10.28 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $9.197 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $678.7 million (31 December 2017 est.) $976.3 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $2.64 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $4.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $3.816 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
Exchange rates: note: the US dollar is used as a medium of exchange and circulates freely in the economy 1 (2017 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 5.83 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 5.928 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 89.6 million kWh (2017 est.)
Electricity - imports: 1.066 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 1.983 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 49% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 23% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 29% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 52,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 347 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 49,280 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 7.331 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 9,982,186
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 162 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: multiple mobile-cellular began rolling out Long Term Evolution (LTE) data services in late-2016; Internet usage grew almost 400% between 2007 and 2015; 6% of phones are fixed while 94% are mobile (2018)

domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system; growth in fixed-line services 11 per 100, has slowed in the face of mobile-cellular competitionat at 162 per 100 (2018)

international: country code - 503; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System
Broadcast media: multiple privately owned national terrestrial TV networks, supplemented by cable TV networks that carry international channels; hundreds of commercial radio broadcast stations and 1 government-owned radio broadcast station; transition to digital transmission to begin in 2018 along with adaptation of the Japanese-Brazilian Digital Standard (ISDB-T)
Internet country code: .sv
Internet users: total: 1,785,254
percent of population: 29% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 68 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 5
(2017) over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2017)
under 914 m: 1 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 63
(2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 11 (2013)
under 914 m: 51 (2013)
Heliports: 2 (2013)
Railways: total 13 km
(2014)
narrow gauge: 12.5 km 0.914-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 9,012 km
(2017) paved: 5,341 km (2017)
unpaved: 3,671 km (2017)
Waterways: (Rio Lempa River is partially navigable by small craft) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 2

by type: other 2 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Puerto Cutuco oil terminal(s): Acajutla offshore terminal
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 Military
Military branches: Salvadoran Armed Forces (Fuerza Armada de El Salvador, FAES): Salvadoran Army (Ejercito de El Salvador, ES), Salvadoran Navy (Fuerza Naval de El Salvador, FNES), Salvadoran Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Salvadorena, FAS) (2017)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for selective compulsory military service; 16-22 years of age for voluntary male or female service; service obligation is 12 months, with 11 months for officers and NCOs (2012)
Military expenditures: 0.9% of GDP (2017) 0.92% of GDP (2016) 0.95% of GDP (2015) 0.93% of GDP (2014) 0.98% of GDP (2013)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled on the delimitation of "bolsones" (disputed areas) along the El Salvador-Honduras boundary, in 1992, with final agreement by the parties in 2006 after an Organization of American States survey and a further ICJ ruling in 2003; the 1992 ICJ ruling advised a tripartite resolution to a maritime boundary in the Gulf of Fonseca advocating Honduran access to the Pacific; El Salvador continues to claim tiny Conejo Island, not identified in the ICJ decision, off Honduras in the Gulf of Fonseca
Refugees and internally displaced persons: IDPs: 71,500 (2018)
Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine; small amounts of marijuana produced for local consumption; significant use of cocaine
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