Tajikistan Population: 8,604,882

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 History
The Tajik people came under Russian imperial rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. At that time, bands of indigenous guerrillas (called "basmachi") fiercely contested Bolshevik control of the area, which was not fully reestablished until 1925. Tajikistan was first created as an autonomous republic within Uzbekistan in 1924, but in 1929 the USSR designated Tajikistan a separate republic and transferred to it much of present-day Sughd province. Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Tajikistan, and ethnic Tajiks an even larger minority in Uzbekistan. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and experienced a civil war between political, regional, and religious factions from 1992 to 1997. Though the country holds general elections for both the presidency (once every seven years) and parliament (once every five years), observers note an electoral system rife with irregularities and abuse, with results that are neither free nor fair. President Emomali RAHMON, who came to power in 1994 during the civil war, used an attack planned by a disaffected deputy defense minister in 2015 to ban the last major opposition political party in Tajikistan. In December 2015, RAHMON further strengthened his position by having himself declared "Founder of Peace and National Unity, Leader of the Nation," with limitless terms and lifelong immunity through constitutional amendments ratified in a referendum. The referendum also lowered the minimum age required to run for president from 35 to 30, which would make RAHMON's son Rustam EMOMALI, the current mayor of the capital city of Dushanbe, eligible to run for president in 2020. The country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Tajikistan became a member of the WTO in March 2013. However, its economy continues to face major challenges, including dependence on remittances from Tajik migrant laborers working in Russia and Kazakhstan, pervasive corruption, and the opiate trade and other destabilizing violence emanating from neighboring Afghanistan. Tajikistan has endured several domestic security incidents since 2010, including armed conflict between government forces and local strongmen in the Rasht Valley and between government forces and criminal groups in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast. Tajikistan suffered its first ISIS-claimed attack in 2018, when assailants attacked a group of Western bicyclists with vehicles and knives, killing four.

 Geography
    Landlocked; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR
Location: Central Asia, west of China, south of Kyrgyzstan
Geographic coordinates: 39 00 N, 71 00 E
Area: total: 144,100 sq km
land: 141,510 sq km
water: 2,590 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Wisconsin
Land Boundaries: total: 4,130 km border countries (4): Afghanistan 1357 km, China 477 km, Kyrgyzstan 984 km, Uzbekistan 1312 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: mid-latitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains
Terrain: mountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest
Natural resources: hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold
Land use: agricultural land: 34.7% (2011 est.) arable land: 6.1% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 0.9% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 27.7% (2011 est.) forest: 2.9% (2011 est.)
other: 62.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 7,420 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: earthquakes; floods
Current Environment Issues: areas of high air pollution from motor vehicles and industry; water pollution from agricultural runoff and disposal of untreated industrial waste and sewage; poor management of water resources; soil erosion; increasing levels of soil salinity
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Tajikistani(s)
adjective: Tajikistani
Ethnic groups: Tajik 84.3% (includes Pamiri and Yagnobi), Uzbek 13.8%, other 2% (includes Kyrgyz, Russian, Turkmen, Tatar, Arab) (2014 est.)
Languages: Tajik (official) 84.4%, Uzbek 11.9%, Kyrgyz .8%, Russian .5%, other 2.4% (2010 est.) note: Russian widely used in government and business
Religions: Muslim 98% (Sunni 95%, Shia 3%) other 2% (2014 est.)
Population: 8,604,882 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 32.05% (male 1,404,403 /female 1,353,704)
15-24 years: 18.35% (male 801,172 /female 777,524)
25-54 years: 40.34% (male 1,721,081 /female 1,749,819)
55-64 years: 5.85% (male 231,820 /female 271,946)
65 years and over: 3.41% (male 121,405 /female 172,008) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 62.5 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 57.1 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 5.4 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 18.5 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 24.8 years
male: 24.2 years
female: 25.4 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.58% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 22.8 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 5.9 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 27.1% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 2.62% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 873,000 DUSHANBE (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 22 years (2017 est.) note: median age at first birth among women 25-29
Maternal mortality rate: 32 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 30.8 deaths/1,000 live births male: 34.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 26.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.4 years male: 65.2 years
female: 71.7 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.59 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 29.3% (2017)
Physicians density: 1.7 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density: 4.8 beds/1,000 population (2013)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 93.1% of population
rural: 66.7% of population
total: 73.8% of population

unimproved:
urban: 6.9% of population
rural: 33.3% of population
total: 26.2% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 93.8% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 95.5% of population (2015 est.)
total: 95% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 6.2% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 4.5% of population (2015 est.)
total: 5% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.3% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 15,000 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: <1000 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 14.2% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 7.6% (2017)
Education expenditures: 5.2% of GDP (2015)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.7% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 11 years male: 12 years female: 11 years (2013)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 16.7% male: 19.2% female: 13.7% (2009 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan
conventional short form: Tajikistan
local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston
local short form: Tojikiston
former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: the Persian suffix "-stan" means "place of" or "country," so the word Tajikistan literally means "Land of the Tajik [people]"
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Dushanbe
geographic coordinates: 38 33 N, 68 46 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor), 1 capital region** (viloyati poytakht), and 1 area referred to as Districts Under Republic Administration***; Dushanbe**, Khatlon (Qurghonteppa), Kuhistoni Badakhshon [Gorno-Badakhshan]* (Khorugh), Nohiyahoi Tobei Jumhuri***, Sughd (Khujand)

note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses
Independence: 9 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holiday: Independence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)
Constitution: history: several previous; latest adopted 6 November 1994 amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by at least one-third of the total membership of both houses of the Supreme Assembly; adoption of any amendment requires a referendum, which includes approval by the president or approval by at least two-thirds of the Assembly of Representatives membership; passage in a referendum requires participation of an absolute majority of eligible voters and an absolute majority of votes; note – constitutional articles including Tajikistan’s form of government, its territory, and its democratic nature cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2016 (2017)
Legal system: civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)

head of government: Prime Minister Qohir RASULZODA (since 23 November 2013)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term for a maximum of two terms; however, as the "Leader of the Nation" President RAHMON can run an unlimited number of times; election last held on 6 November 2013 (next to be held in November 2020); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Emomali RAHMON reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMON (PDPT) 83.9%, Ismoil TALBAKOV (CPT) 5%, other 11.1%
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of: National Assembly or Majlisi Milli (34 seats; 25 members indirectly elected by local representative assemblies or majlisi, 8 appointed by the president, and 1 reserved for each living former president; members serve 5-year terms) Assembly of Representatives or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; 41 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by 2-round absolute majority vote and 22 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: National Assembly - last held on 1 March 2015 (next to be held in 2020) Assembly of Representatives - last held on 1 March 2015 (next to be held in 2020)

election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 28, women 6, percent of women 17.6% Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 65.4%, APT 11.7%, PERT 7.5%, SPT 5.5%, CPT 2.2%, DPT 1.7%, other 6%; seats by party - PDPT 51, APT 5, PERT 3, CPT 2, SPT 1, DPT 1; composition - men 50, women 13, percent of women 20.6%; note - total Supreme Assembly percent of women 19.6%
Judicial branch: highest courts: highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, deputy chairmen, and 34 judges organized into civil, family, criminal, administrative offense, and military chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of the court chairman, deputy chairman, and 5 judges); High Economic Court (consists of 16 judicial positions) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court, and High Economic Court judges nominated by the president and approved by the National Assembly; judges of all 3 courts appointed for 10-year renewable terms with no term limits, but the last appointment must occur before the age of 65

subordinate courts: regional and district courts; Dushanbe City Court; viloyat (province level) courts; Court of Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region
Political parties and leaders: Agrarian Party of Tajikistan or APT [Rustam LATIFZODA] Communist Party of Tajikistan or CPT [Miroj ABDULLOEV] Democratic Party of Tajikistan or DPT [Saidjafar USMONZODA] Party of Economic Reform of Tajikistan or PERT [Olimjon BOBOEV] People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMON] Social Democratic Party of Tajikistan or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOIROV] Socialist Party of Tajikistan or SPT [Abduhalim GHAFFOROV]
International organization participation: ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): crown surmounted by an arc of seven, five-pointed stars; snow leopard;
national colors: red, white, green
National anthem: name: "Surudi milli" (National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Gulnazar KELDI/Sulaimon YUDAKOV

note: adopted 1991; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Tajikistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet republic but adopted new lyrics
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Farhod SALIM (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 1005 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 223-6090
FAX: [1] (202) 223-6091
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador John Mark POMMERSHEIM (since 15 March 2019)
embassy: 109-A Ismoili Somoni Avenue, Dushanbe 734019
mailing address: 7090 Dushanbe Place, Dulles, VA 20189
telephone: [992] (37) 229-20-00
FAX: [992] (37) 229-20-50
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 Economy
Tajikistan is a poor, mountainous country with an economy dominated by minerals extraction, metals processing, agriculture, and reliance on remittances from citizens working abroad. Mineral resources include silver, gold, uranium, antimony, tungsten, and coal. Industry consists mainly of small obsolete factories in food processing and light industry, substantial hydropower facilities, and a large aluminum plant - currently operating well below its capacity. The 1992-97 civil war severely damaged an already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Today, Tajikistan is the poorest among the former Soviet republics. Because less than 7% of the land area is arable and cotton is the predominant crop, Tajikistan imports approximately 70% of its food. Since the end of the civil war, the country has pursued half-hearted reforms and privatizations in the economic sphere, but its poor business climate remains a hindrance to attracting foreign investment. Some experts estimate the value of narcotics transiting Tajikistan is equivalent to 30%-50% of GDP. Because of a lack of employment opportunities in Tajikistan, more than one million Tajik citizens work abroad - roughly 90% in Russia - supporting families back home through remittances that in 2017 were equivalent to nearly 35% of GDP. Tajikistan’s large remittances from migrant workers in Russia exposes it to monetary shocks. Tajikistan often delays devaluation of its currency for fear of inflationary pressures on food and other consumables. Recent slowdowns in the Russian and Chinese economies, low commodity prices, and currency fluctuations have hampered economic growth. The dollar value of remittances from Russia to Tajikistan dropped by almost 65% in 2015, and the government spent almost $500 million in 2016 to bail out the country’s still troubled banking sector. Tajikistan’s growing public debt – currently about 50% of GDP – could result in financial difficulties. Remittances from Russia increased in 2017, however, bolstering the economy somewhat. China owns about 50% of Tajikistan’s outstanding debt. Tajikistan has borrowed heavily to finance investment in the country’s vast hydropower potential. In 2016, Tajikistan contracted with the Italian firm Salini Impregilo to build the Roghun dam over a 13-year period for $3.9 billion. A 2017 Eurobond has largely funded Roghun’s first phase, after which sales from Roghun’s output are expected to fund the rest of its construction. The government has not ruled out issuing another Eurobond to generate auxiliary funding for its second phase.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $28.43 billion (2017 est.) $26.55 billion (2016 est.) $24.83 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $7.144 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 7.1% (2017 est.) 6.9% (2016 est.) 6% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $3,200 (2017 est.) $3,000 (2016 est.) $2,900 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 24.4% of GDP (2017 est.) 15.4% of GDP (2016 est.) 11.8% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 98.4% (2017 est.) government consumption: 13.3% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 11.7% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 2.5% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 10.7% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -36.6% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 28.6% (2017 est.) industry: 25.5% (2017 est.) services: 45.9% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
Industries: aluminum, cement, coal, gold, silver, antimony, textile, vegetable oil
Industrial production growth rate: 1% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 2.295 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 43%
industry: 10.6%
services: 46.4% (2016 est.)
Unemployment rate: 2.4% (2016 est.) 2.5% (2015 est.) note: official rate; actual unemployment is much higher
Population below poverty line: 31.5% (2016 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: n/a (2009 est.)
highest 10%: n/a (2009 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 32.6 (2006) 34.7 (1998)
Budget: revenues: 2.269 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 2.374 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 31.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -1.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 50.4% of GDP (2017 est.) 42% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.3% (2017 est.) 5.9% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: -$35 million (2017 est.) -$362 million (2016 est.)
Exports: $873.1 million (2017 est.) $691.1 million (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
Exports - partners: Turkey 27.5%, China 17.7%, Russia 13.4%, Switzerland 12.5%, Algeria 8.2%, Iran 7.1% (2017)
Imports: $2.39 billion (2017 est.) $2.554 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: petroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: Russia 38%, Kazakhstan 19%, China 8.7%, Iran 4.4% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.292 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $652.8 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $5.75 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $5.495 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $2.272 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $16.3 billion (31 December 2009)
Market value of publicly traded shares: n/a
Exchange rates: Tajikistani somoni (TJS) per US dollar - 8.764 (2017 est.) 7.8358 (2016 est.) 7.8358 (2015 est.) 6.1631 (2014 est.) 4.9348 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 17.03 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 12.96 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 1.4 billion kWh n/a (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports: 103 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 5.508 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 6% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 94% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 180 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 12 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 172 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 24,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 22,460 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 19.82 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 19.82 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 6.329 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 9.4 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 111 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: foreign investment in the telephone system has resulted in major improvements; conversion of the existing fixed network from analogue to digital was completed in 2012; the country has endeavored to launch 4G/LTE services with mixed results; 7 major cities have 4G coverage; 5 major operators in the market; low broadband penetration (2018)

domestic: fixed line availability has not changed significantly since 1998, while mobile cellular subscribership, aided by competition among multiple operators, has expanded rapidly; coverage now extends to all major cities and towns; fixed-line 6 per 100 and mobile-cellular 111 per 100 (2018)

international: country code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 3 (2 Intelsat and 1 Orbita); established a single gateway for Internet traffic in December 2015, which is expected to limit the connectivity of nonstate-owned telecom, Internet, and mobile companies
Broadcast media: state-run TV broadcasters transmit nationally on 9 TV and 10 radio stations, and regionally on 4 stations; 31 independent TV and 20 radio stations broadcast locally and regionally; many households are able to receive Russian and other foreign stations via cable and satellite (2016)
Internet country code: .tj
Internet users: total: 1,705,345
percent of population: 20.5% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 24 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 17
(2013) over 3,047 m: 2 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 7
(2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
Pipelines: 549 km gas, 38 km oil (2013)
Railways: total 680 km
(2014) broad gauge: 680 km 1.520-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 30,000 km
(2018)
Waterways: 200 km (along Vakhsh River) (2011)
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 Military
Military branches: Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Mobile Forces (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation; males required to undergo compulsory military training between ages 16 and 55; males can enroll in military schools from at least age 15 (2012)
Military expenditures: 1.19% of GDP (2017) 1.25% of GDP (2016) 1.22% of GDP (2015) 1.13% of GDP (2014) 1% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: in 2006, China and Tajikistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; talks continue with Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields; disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with Kyrgyzstan
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 4,616 (2018)
Illicit drugs: Tajikistan sits on one of the world's highest volume illicit drug trafficking routes, between Afghan opiate production to the south and the illicit drug markets of Russia and Eastern Europe to the north; limited illicit cultivation of opium poppy for domestic consumption; significant consumer of opiates
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