Trinidad and Tobago Population: 1,220,479

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 History
First colonized by the Spanish, the islands came under British control in the early 19th century. The islands' sugar industry was hurt by the emancipation of the slaves in 1834. Manpower was replaced with the importation of contract laborers from India between 1845 and 1917, which boosted sugar production as well as the cocoa industry. The discovery of oil on Trinidad in 1910 added another important export. Independence was attained in 1962. The country is one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean thanks largely to petroleum and natural gas production and processing. Tourism, mostly in Tobago, is targeted for expansion and is growing. The government is coping with a rise in violent crime.

 Geography
Pitch Lake, on Trinidad's southwestern coast, is the world's largest natural reservoir of asphalt
Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela
Geographic coordinates: 11 00 N, 61 00 W
Area: total: 5,128 sq km
land: 5,128 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Delaware
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 362 km
Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the outer edge of the continental margin
Climate: tropical; rainy season (June to December)
Terrain: mostly plains with some hills and low mountains
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, asphalt
Land use: agricultural land: 10.6% arable land 4.9%; permanent crops 4.3%; permanent pasture 1.4% forest: 44%
other: 45.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 70 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms
Current Environment Issues: water pollution from agricultural chemicals, industrial wastes, and raw sewage; oil pollution of beaches; deforestation; soil erosion
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s)
adjective: Trinidadian, Tobagonian
Ethnic groups: East Indian 35.4%, African 34.2%, mixed - other 15.3%, mixed African/East Indian 7.7%, other 1.3%, unspecified 6.2% (2011 est.)
Languages: English (official), Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), French, Spanish, Chinese
Religions: Protestant 32.1% (Pentecostal/Evangelical/Full Gospel 12%, Baptist 6.9%, Anglican 5.7%, Seventh-Day Adventist 4.1%, Presbyterian/Congretational 2.5%, other Protestant 0.9%), Roman Catholic 21.6%, Hindu 18.2%, Muslim 5%, Jehovah's Witness 1.5%, other 8.4%, none 2.2%, unspecified 11.1% (2011 est.)
Population: 1,220,479 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 19.34% (male 120,214/female 115,821)
15-24 years: 12.24% (male 77,738/female 71,629)
25-54 years: 46.1% (male 292,819/female 269,855)
55-64 years: 12.09% (male 73,457/female 74,062)
65 years and over: 10.23% (male 54,334/female 70,550) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 43.2%
youth dependency ratio: 29.8%
elderly dependency ratio: 13.5%
potential support ratio: 7.4% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 35.5 years
male: 35 years
female: 36 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.17% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 13.1 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 8.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -6.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 8.4% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -1.2% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: PORT-OF-SPAIN (capital) 34,000 (2014)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 63 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 23 deaths/1,000 live births male: 24.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 21.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72.9 years male: 69.9 years
female: 75.9 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.71 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 42.5% (2006)
Health expenditures: 5.9% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 1.18 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
Hospital bed density: 2.7 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 95.1% of population
rural: 95.1% of population
total: 95.1% of population

unimproved:
urban: 4.9% of population
rural: 4.9% of population
total: 4.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 91.5% of population
rural: 91.5% of population
total: 91.5% of population

unimproved:
urban: 8.5% of population
rural: 8.5% of population
total: 8.5% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.22% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 10,800 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 200 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 32.3% (2014)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99.2%
female: 98.7% (2015 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 9.2% male: 7.7%
female: 11.4% (2013 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
conventional short form: Trinidad and Tobago
etymology: explorer Christopher COLUMBUS named the larger island "La Isla de la Trinidad" (The Island of the Trinity) on 31 July 1498 on his third voyage; the tobacco grown and smoked by the natives of the smaller island or its elongated cigar shape may account for the "tobago" name, which is spelled "tobaco" in Spanish
Government type: parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Port of Spain
geographic coordinates: 10 39 N, 61 31 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 9 regions, 3 boroughs, 2 cities, 1 ward regions: Couva/Tabaquite/Talparo, Diego Martin, Mayaro/Rio Claro, Penal/Debe, Princes Town, Sangre Grande, San Juan/Laventille, Siparia, Tunapuna/Piarco borough: Arima, Chaguanas, Point Fortin cities: Port of Spain, San Fernando ward: Tobago
Independence: 31 August 1962 (from the UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 31 August (1962)
Constitution: previous 1962; latest 1976; amended many times, last in 2007 (2016)
Legal system: English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Anthony CARMONA (since 18 March 2013)

head of government: Prime Minister Keith ROWLEY (since 9 September 2015)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed from among members of Parliament elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college of selected Senate and House of Representatives members for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 15 February 2013 (next to be held by February 2018); the president usually appoints the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives as prime minister

election results: Anthony CARMONA (independent) elected president; electoral college vote - 100%
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (31 seats; 16 members appointed by the ruling party, 9 by the president, and 6 by the opposition party; members serve 5-year terms;) and the House of Representatives (41 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms) note: Tobago has a unicameral House of Assembly (16 seats; 12 assemblymen directly elected by simple majority vote and 4 appointed councillors - 3 on the advice of the chief secretary and 1 on the advice of the minority leader; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: House of Representatives - last held on 7 September 2015 (next to be held in 2020)

election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote - NA; seats by party - PNM 23, UNC 18
Judicial branch: highest resident court(s): Supreme Court of the Judicature (consists of a chief justice for both the Court of Appeal with 12 judges and the High Court with 24 judges); note - Trinidad and Tobago can file appeals beyond its Supreme Court to the Caribbean Court of Justice, with final appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the president after consultation with the prime minister and the parliamentary leader of the opposition; other judges appointed by the Judicial Legal Services Commission, headed by the chief justice and 5 members with judicial experience; all judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement normally at age 65

subordinate courts: Courts of Summary Criminal Jurisdiction; Petty Civil Courts; Family Court
Political parties and leaders: Congress of the People or COP [Prakash RAMADHAR] Democratic Action Congress or DAC [Hochoy CHARLES] (only active in Tobago) Democratic National Alliance or DNA [Charles CARSON] (coalition of NAR, DDPT, MND) Movement for National Development or MND [Garvin NICHOLAS] National Alliance for Reconstruction or NAR [Lennox SANKERSINGH] People's National Movement or PNM [Keith ROWLEY] Tobago Organization of the People or TOP [Ashworth JACK] United National Congress or UNC [Kamla PERSAD-BISSESSAR]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Jamaat-al Muslimeen [Yasin ABU BAKR]
International organization participation: ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CDB, CELAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): scarlet ibis (bird of Trinidad), cocrico (bird of Tobago), Chaconia flower; national colors: red, white, black
National anthem: name: "Forged From the Love of Liberty"
lyrics/music: Patrick Stanislaus CASTAGNE

note: adopted 1962; song originally created to serve as an anthem for the West Indies Federation; adopted by Trinidad and Tobago following the Federation's dissolution in 1962
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Anthony Wayne Jerome PHILLIPS SPENCER (since 27 June 2016)
chancery: 1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 467-6490
FAX: [1] (202) 785-3130
consulate(s) general: Miami, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador John L. ESTRADA (since 19 April 2016)
embassy: 15 Queen's Park West, Port of Spain
mailing address: P. O. Box 752, Port of Spain
telephone: [1] (868) 622-6371 through 6376
FAX: [1] (868) 822-5905
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 Economy
Trinidad and Tobago attracts considerable foreign direct investment from international businesses, particularly in energy, and has one of the highest per capita incomes in Latin America. Economic growth between 2000 and 2007 averaged slightly over 8% per year, significantly above the regional average of about 3.7% for that same period; however, GDP has slowed down since then, contracting during 2009-2012, making small gains in 2013 and contracting again in 2014-2015. Energy production and downstream industrial use dominate the economy. Trinidad and Tobago produces about nine times more natural gas than crude oil on an energy equivalent basis with gas contributing about two-thirds of energy sector government revenue. Oil and gas account for about 40% of GDP and 80% of exports but less than 5% of employment. In 2013, Trinidad and Tobago was the world’s sixth-largest liquefied natural gas (LNG) exporter and is home to one of the largest natural gas liquefaction facilities in the Western Hemisphere. The United States is the country’s largest trading partner, accounting for 33% of its total imports and taking 44% of its exports. Trinidad and Tobago is buffered by considerable foreign reserves and a sovereign wealth fund that equals about one-and-a-half times the national budget, but the country is in a recession and the government faces the dual challenge of gas shortages and a low price environment. A projected 70% decrease in energy revenue to the government in 2016 will likely force cuts to the government budget, which has increased by 35% over the past six years. Economic diversification is a longstanding government talking point, and Trinidad and Tobago has much potential due to its stable, democratic government and its educated, English speaking workforce. Although Trinidad and Tobago enjoys cheap electricity from natural gas, the renewable energy sector has recently garnered increased interest. The country is also a regional financial center with a well-regulated and stable financial system. Other sectors the Government of Trinidad and Tobago has targeted for increased investment and projected growth include tourism, agriculture, information and communications technology, and shipping. Unfortunately, a host of other factors, including low labor productivity, inefficient government bureaucracy, and corruption, have hampered economic development.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $43.57 billion (2016 est.) $44.8 billion (2015 est.) $45.78 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $22.81 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -2.8% (2016 est.) -2.1% (2015 est.) -1% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $31,900 (2016 est.) $33,000 (2015 est.) $33,900 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 4.8% of GDP (2016 est.) 8% of GDP (2015 est.) 18.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 59.5%
government consumption: 17.5%
investment in fixed capital: 11.6%
investment in inventories: 0.6%
exports of goods and services: 47.9%
imports of goods and services: -37.1% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 59.5%
government consumption: 17.5%
investment in fixed capital: 11.6%
investment in inventories: 0.6%
exports of goods and services: 47.9%
imports of goods and services: -37.1% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: cocoa, dasheen, pumpkin, cassava, tomatoes, cucumbers, eggplant, hot pepper, pommecythere, coconut water, poultry
Industries: petroleum and petroleum products, liquefied natural gas (LNG), methanol, ammonia, urea, steel products, beverages, food processing, cement, cotton textiles
Industrial production growth rate: -5% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 629,700 (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 3.6% manufacturing, mining, and quarrying: 11.2% construction and utilities: 85.2%
services: 62.9% (2014 est.)
Unemployment rate: 4% (2016 est.) 3.5% (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line: 17% (2007 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $7.311 billion
expenditures: $9.369 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 32.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 51.2% of GDP (2016 est.) 49.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.7% (2016 est.) 4.7% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$1.975 billion (2016 est.) -$1.329 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $7.264 billion (2016 est.) $8.166 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, liquefied natural gas, methanol, ammonia, urea, steel products, beverages, cereal and cereal products, cocoa, fish, preserved fruits, , cosmetics, household cleaners, plastic packaging
Exports - partners: US 26.3%, Argentina 12%, Brazil 6.6%, Chile 5.3%, Dominican Republic 5.2%, Barbados 5% (2015)
Imports: $7.398 billion (2016 est.) $7.9 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: mineral fuels, lubricants, machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals, live animals
Imports - partners: US 35.6%, China 6.8%, Gabon 6.6% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $9.394 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $10.38 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $7.917 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $6.826 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $382.9 million (31 December 2014 est.) $311.7 million (2014 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $1.266 billion (2014 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $177.4 million (31 December 2015 est.) $171.6 million (31 December 2014 est.) $170 million (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: Trinidad and Tobago dollars (TTD) per US dollar - 6.709 (2016 est.) 6.3756 (2015 est.) 6.4041 (2014 est.) 6.4041 (2013 est.) 6.39 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 9.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 9.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 2.353 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Crude oil - production: 78,630 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 30,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 78,340 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 700 million bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 139,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 56,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 113,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 31,630 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 41.59 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 24.67 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 17.41 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 325.7 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 48 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 2.123 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 174 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: excellent international service; good local service

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity over 190 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 1-868; submarine cable systems provide connectivity to US and parts of the Caribbean and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Barbados and Guyana (2015)
Broadcast media: 16 TV networks (11 commercial, 5 non-commercial), 2 of which are state-owned that broadcast on multiple stations; 9 TV subscription service providers (cable and satellite); 19 radio networks, 1 state-owned, broadcast over about 35 stations (2016)
Internet country code: .tt
Internet users: total: 846,000 percent of population: 69.2% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 4 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 2
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 2

914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: condensate 257 km; condensate/gas 11 km; gas 1,567 km; oil 587 km (2013)
Roadways: total 9,592 km
paved: 5,524 km
unpaved: 4,068 km (2015)
Merchant marine: total 4

by type: passenger 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1

registered in other countries: 2 (unknown 2) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Point Fortin, Point Lisas, Port of Spain, Scarborough
oil terminals: Galeota Point terminal LNG terminal(s) (export): Port Fortin
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 Military
Military branches: Trinidad and Tobago Defense Force (TTDF): Trinidad and Tobago Army, Coast Guard, Air Guard, Defense Force Reserves (2010)
Military service age and obligation: 18-25 years of age for voluntary military service (16 years of age with parental consent); no conscription; Trinidad and Tobago citizenship and completion of secondary school required (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago abide by the April 2006 Permanent Court of Arbitration decision delimiting a maritime boundary and limiting catches of flying fish in Trinidad and Tobago's EEZ; in 2005, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago agreed to compulsory international arbitration under UN Convention on the Law of the Sea challenging whether the northern limit of Trinidad and Tobago's and Venezuela's maritime boundary extends into Barbadian waters; Guyana has expressed its intention to include itself in the arbitration, as the Trinidad and Tobago-Venezuela maritime boundary may also extend into its waters
Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe; producer of cannabis
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