United States Population: 329,256,465

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 History
Britain's American colonies broke with the mother country in 1776 and were recognized as the new nation of the United States of America following the Treaty of Paris in 1783. During the 19th and 20th centuries, 37 new states were added to the original 13 as the nation expanded across the North American continent and acquired a number of overseas possessions. The two most traumatic experiences in the nation's history were the Civil War (1861-65), in which a northern Union of states defeated a secessionist Confederacy of 11 southern slave states, and the Great Depression of the 1930s, an economic downturn during which about a quarter of the labor force lost its jobs. Buoyed by victories in World Wars I and II and the end of the Cold War in 1991, the US remains the world's most powerful nation state. Since the end of World War II, the economy has achieved relatively steady growth, low unemployment and inflation, and rapid advances in technology.

 Geography
    World's third-largest country by size (after Russia and Canada) and by population (after China and India); Denali (Mt. McKinley) is the highest point in North America and Death Valley the lowest point on the continent

  • the western coast of the United States and southern coast of Alaska lie along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire
  • the Aleutian Islands are a chain of volcanic islands that divide the Bering Sea (north) from the main Pacific Ocean (south); they extend about 1,800 km westward from the Alaskan Peninsula; the archipelago consists of 14 larger islands, 55 smaller islands, and hundreds of islets; there are 41 active volcanoes on the islands, which together form a large northern section of the Ring of Fire
  • Mammoth Cave, in west-central Kentucky, is the world's longest known cave system with more than 650 km (405 miles) of surveyed passageways, which is nearly twice as long as the second-longest cave system, the Sac Actun underwater cave in Mexico - the world's longest underwater cave system (see "Geography" under Mexico);
  • Kazumura Cave on the island of Hawaii is the world's longest and deepest lava tube cave; it has been surveyed at 66 km (41 mi) long and 1,102 m (3,614 ft) deep
  • Bracken Cave outside of San Antonio, Texas is the world's largest bat cave; it is the summer home to the largest colony of bats in the world; an estimated 20 million Mexican free-tailed bats roost in the cave from March to October making it the world's largest known concentration of mammals
Location: North America, bordering both the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean, between Canada and Mexico
Geographic coordinates: 38 00 N, 97 00 W
Area: total: 9,833,517 sq km
land: 9,147,593 sq km
water: 685,924 sq km

note: includes only the 50 states and District of Columbia, no overseas territories

Size comparison: about half the size of Russia; about three-tenths the size of Africa; about half the size of South America (or slightly larger than Brazil); slightly larger than China; more than twice the size of the European Union
Land Boundaries: total: 12,048 km border countries (2): Canada 8893 km (including 2477 km with Alaska), Mexico 3155 km note: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba is leased by the US and is part of Cuba; the base boundary is 28.5 km
Coastline: 19,924 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: not specified
Climate: mostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida, arctic in Alaska, semiarid in the great plains west of the Mississippi River, and arid in the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter temperatures in the northwest are ameliorated occasionally in January and February by warm chinook winds from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains
Terrain: vast central plain, mountains in west, hills and low mountains in east; rugged mountains and broad river valleys in Alaska; rugged, volcanic topography in Hawaii
Natural resources: coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates, rare earth elements, uranium, bauxite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver, tungsten, zinc, petroleum, natural gas, timber, arable land, note, the US has the world's largest coal reserves with 491 billion short tons accounting for 27% of the world's total
Land use: agricultural land: 44.5% (2011 est.) arable land: 16.8% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 0.3% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 27.4% (2011 est.) forest: 33.3% (2011 est.)
other: 22.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 264,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: tsunamis; volcanoes; earthquake activity around Pacific Basin; hurricanes along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts; tornadoes in the Midwest and Southeast; mud slides in California; forest fires in the west; flooding; permafrost in northern Alaska, a major impediment to development volcanism: volcanic activity in the Hawaiian Islands, Western Alaska, the Pacific Northwest, and in the Northern Mariana Islands; both Mauna Loa (4,170 m) in Hawaii and Mount Rainier (4,392 m) in Washington have been deemed Decade Volcanoes by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Pavlof (2,519 m) is the most active volcano in Alaska's Aleutian Arc and poses a significant threat to air travel since the area constitutes a major flight path between North America and East Asia; St. Helens (2,549 m), famous for the devastating 1980 eruption, remains active today; numerous other historically active volcanoes exist, mostly concentrated in the Aleutian arc and Hawaii; they include: in Alaska: Aniakchak, Augustine, Chiginagak, Fourpeaked, Iliamna, Katmai, Kupreanof, Martin, Novarupta, Redoubt, Spurr, Wrangell, Trident, Ugashik-Peulik, Ukinrek Maars, Veniaminof; in Hawaii: Haleakala, Kilauea, Loihi; in the Northern Mariana Islands: Anatahan; and in the Pacific Northwest: Mount Baker, Mount Hood; see note 2 under "Geography - note"
Current Environment Issues: air pollution; large emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water pollution from runoff of pesticides and fertilizers; limited natural freshwater resources in much of the western part of the country require careful management; deforestation; mining; desertification; species conservation; invasive species (the Hawaiian Islands are particularly vulnerable)
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Hazardous Wastes
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 People
Nationality: noun: American(s)
adjective: American
Ethnic groups: white 72.4%, black 12.6%, Asian 4.8%, Amerindian and Alaska native 0.9%, native Hawaiian and other Pacific islander 0.2%, other 6.2%, two or more races 2.9% (2010 est.) note: a separate listing for Hispanic is not included because the US Census Bureau considers Hispanic to mean persons of Spanish/Hispanic/Latino origin including those of Mexican, Cuban, Puerto Rican, Dominican Republic, Spanish, and Central or South American origin living in the US who may be of any race or ethnic group (white, black, Asian, etc.); an estimated 16.3% of the total US population is Hispanic as of 2010
Languages: English only 78.2%, Spanish 13.4%, Chinese 1.1%, other 7.3% (2017 est.) note: data represent the language spoken at home; the US has no official national language, but English has acquired official status in 32 of the 50 states; Hawaiian is an official language in the state of Hawaii, and 20 indigenous languages are official in Alaska
Religions: Protestant 46.5%, Roman Catholic 20.8%, Jewish 1.9%, Mormon 1.6%, other Christian 0.9%, Muslim 0.9%, Jehovah's Witness 0.8%, Buddhist 0.7%, Hindu 0.7%, other 1.8%, unaffiliated 22.8%, don't know/refused 0.6% (2014 est.)
Population: 329,256,465 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 18.62% (male 31,329,121 /female 29,984,705)
15-24 years: 13.12% (male 22,119,340 /female 21,082,599)
25-54 years: 39.29% (male 64,858,646 /female 64,496,889)
55-64 years: 12.94% (male 20,578,432 /female 22,040,267)
65 years and over: 16.03% (male 23,489,515 /female 29,276,951) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 51.2 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 29 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 22.1 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 4.5 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 38.2 years
male: 37 years
female: 39.5 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.8% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 12.4 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 8.2 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: 3.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 82.3% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 0.95% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 18.819 million New York-Newark
12.458 million Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana
8.864 million Chicago
6.115 million Houston
5.817 million Miami
5.207 million WASHINGTON, D.C. (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female n/a
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 26.4 years (2015 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 14 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 5.7 deaths/1,000 live births male: 6.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 80.1 years male: 77.8 years
female: 82.3 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.87 children born/woman (2017 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 75.9% (2015/17)
Physicians density: 2.59 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density: 2.9 beds/1,000 population (2013)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 99.4% of population
rural: 98.2% of population
total: 99.2% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0.6% of population
rural: 1.8% of population
total: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 100% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 100% of population (2015 est.)
total: 100% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 0% of population (2015 est.)
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: n/a
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: n/a
HIV/AIDS - deaths: n/a
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 36.2% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 0.5% (2012)
Education expenditures: 5% of GDP (2014)
Literacy:
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 16 years male: 16 years female: 17 years (2016)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 8.6% male: 9.5% female: 7.7% (2018 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional l